Flashcards in Chemistry Quarter Final Deck (81):
any substance that imperils health or life when absorbed into the body
poisonous substance produced by higher plants, animals, or bacteria that is toxic or poisonous to humans
Endotoxin or Exotoxin
Endotoxin or Exotoxin
amount poison necessary to kill 50% or ½ of the group to whom it has been given.
LD – 50 – Lethal Dose 50%
smallest dose of poison or radiation on record that process death. EXOTOXIN 0.00001gm or 8oz of milk – botcholism
MLD – Minimum Lethal Dose
liquid used in lip tense, external sealers, primarily used as solvents
methanol 1 – used commercially to manufacture formaldehyde 2 – used as antipolymerizing agent, prevent paraformaldehyde solid form of formaldehyde 3 – ethanol used as preservatives, vehicle in cavity fluids
halogens – salt formers
Alkyl halides; 3 CL used as a disinfectant
Alkyl halides; 4 CL solvent or used as instrument disinfection
white crystal solid substance, used as a herbicide; added to preservative powders and hardening compounds
terminal disinfection used in prep-room, neutralizes formaldehyde (cavity fluid spills), acid to base = salts (urotropin) plus water
from a tree it is derived, acts as ketone; hazardous chemical. Used as a solvent
used as a disinfectant / deodorizer air freshener
light brown powder used as fungicide (used to kill fungus)
colorless liquid used as solvent
colorless OILY liquid used as a solvent
clear liquid with fruit like odor used as a perfuming agent
used as anticoagulant in pre-injection with co-injection chemicals used as buffer.
EDTA (Sodium salts)
in free state gas, soluble in water, used as preservative
colorless liquid used as solvent . Acidic when less than pH 7. Active ingredient in bee stings and fire ant bites. Substance formed in the decomposition of formaldehyde
one of two supplementary germicides. A far superior disinfectant than formaldehyde. Has 5 carbon atoms, no standard but there is a formaldehyde standard
used as humectants in embalming fluids. (Emicated and dehydrated cases) (Example: antifreeze)
Glycols (dihydroxy alcohols)
bleaches NaOCl – sodium hyplorite – Clorox, Hilex, HCF- household bleach 1:9 parts is the 1:10. (Phosgene- gas that can be released if you add Clorox to a formaldehyde spill)
substance used as a propellant in aerosol spray products
colorless liquid, similar to acetone that is used as solvent
Methyl ethyl ketone (butanone)
used to clean cosmetic brushes
Mineral spirits (paint thinner, turpentine)
injection to help rebuild where tissue has been lost
Nitrocellulose (tissue builder)
colorless liquid used an insecticide chemical, added to preservative powders. (Topical embalming chemicals)
colorless solid used as a stripping agent (zip strip- furniture stripper)
mold preventative agent. Used in preservative powders
Paradichlorobenzene (moth balls)
white solid form of formaldehyde. Major preservative used in preservative powders
cauterizer to prevent leakage and bleaching agents on hand do it as injection not a cavity pack where applied to skin (rust in color)
Phenol / phenolic compounds
solid granular powder form, to create a cast of a broken area for restorative work in prep room, primary dehydrating agent used of hardening compounds
Plaster of Paris
drying powder, flesh colored or white colored used after application of oil based cosmetics to remove the sheen
Quartz (finishing powder)
used as supplementary germicide
Benzalkonium Chloride & Zephrian Chloride
Quaternary ammonium compounds
drying powder – finishing powder
colorless liquid used as solvent
They are injected to disinfect, temporarily preserve and restore the dead human body without causing objectionable change in the tissues.
vascular fluids (arterial)
vascular fluids are generally classified by
the number of grams of formaldehyde gas dissolved in 100 ml of water; usually given in a percentage
Chemical which inactivates saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which bacteria thrive, and which will arrest decomposition by altering enzymes of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to a form less susceptible to decomposition. One of the components of arterial fluids.
Actions of preservative chemicals:
1. Inactivates the chemical group of proteins or amino acids
2. Inhibits further decomposition
3. Inactivates some enzymes
4. Kills some microorganisms – not all
5. Destroys odors
general formula (R-CHO) functional group
characteristic name ending in “-AL” means ALCOHOL
deprived of hydration – common name Formaldehyde
(methanal) HCHO or CH 2 0
Produced by the partial oxidation of methylalcohol (methanol)
Characteristic of formaldehyde
Has an irritating and unpleasant odor – pungent
Freely soluble in water
Combines with tissue protein
Is a monoaldehyde (one functional aldehyde group); H-”CHO” one CHO
general formula R-OH with name ending in “-OL”
(methanol or wood alcohol) has two primary uses
- used commercially to manufacture formaldehyde
- is also an antipolymerizing agent (ensures it stays in its liquid state)
(ethanol or grain alcohol)
obtained by the distillation of coal tar.
Used as cauterizer to prevent leakage on embalmed bodies
Also, a bleaching agent - inject it do not use as a surface application
One of the components of arterial fluids. Chemicals added for the purpose of destroying disease causing microorganisms
Examples of supplementary germicides
1. Glutaraldehyde - better disinfectant used as a supplementary germicide.
2. Quaternary ammonium compounds – agents that are usually used for disinfection of skin, oral, nasal cavities, and instruments. EXAMPLES: Benzalkonium and Zephrian
Chemicals which retard the tendency of blood to become more viscous (thicker) by natural postmortem processes or prevent adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals. This process is primarily accomplished by breaking down the calcium in the blood and water. One of the components of arterial fluids.
- Also known as water conditioners or water softeners.
- These chemicals help keep blood in a liquid state
Examples of anticoagulants:
1. Sodium citrate– white, odorless, crystalline or granular material is often used for its anticoagulation. This compound inactivates calcium in the blood as well as in the water supply. W/O calcium, blood coagulation does not occur.
2. Sodium salt of EDTA = (Ethylenediaminetetrasodiumacetate) – very effective sequestering or chelating agents, means – they are readily combined with calcium ions to prevent blood coagulation and also to remove hardness chemicals from the water supply.
One of the components of arterial fluids. Liquids that serve as a solvent for the numerous ingredients that are incorporated into embalming fluids.
They must serve as the carrier of the components found in the arterial solution.
Most common is water.
One of the components of arterial fluids. Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant odor.
Odorless or fumeless chemicals
PERFUMING AGENTS, DEODRANTS OR MASKING AGENTS
Examples of perfuming agents
Methylsalicylate (oil of wintergreen)
Benzaldehyde (oil of almonds)
Oil of sassafras
Oil of cloves
Substances which will, upon being dissolved, impart a definite color to the embalming solution and/or tissues.
EXAMPLES OF DYES
1. Eosin - red
2. Ponceau red - red
3. Erythrosine - brown-red tint.
Also called - surface tension reducers, wetting agents, and surface active agents. A chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so that it can flow through smaller apertures.
Used in promoting fluid diffusion.
Chemicals in dishwashing detergents that prevent sports on glasses
Example of surfactants (wetting agents)
Sulfonate oils - an example is sodium lauryl sulfate (coconut oil)
Chemicals added to the embalming solution to deal with varying demands based upon the type of embalming, the environment, and the embalming fluid to be used. Chemicals which control the rate and extent of the embalming operation
Two modifying agents used in embalming fluids
A chemical that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture (chemical that helps to control dehydration). Emaciated cases
Chemicals used as humectants are:
a. Glycerol (glycerin) – thick stuff, member of alcohol family
c. Lanolin’s – message stuff, liquid based.
d. Glycols – has 2 OH groups – active ingredients in antifreeze
Chemicals that will affect the acid-base balance (pH) within embalming solutions and in the embalmed tissue
examples of buffers
a. Borax – reduces the hardening & graying action of formaldehyde.
c. Sodium salt of EDTA
d. Sodium Phosphates -
Formulated to produce maximum disinfection and preservation with a minimum amount of fluid.
Composition of cavity fluid.
3. Vehicle (primarily alcohols)
4. Perfuming agents
Fluid injected primarily to prepare the vascular system and body tissues for the injection of the preservative vascular solution. These fluids will also help keep the blood in a liquid state.
Components of pre-injection fluids
4. Vehicle (primarily water)
5. Water conditioning agents
Pre-injection fluids do not contain low preservatives
A fluid(s) used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of the vascular (arterial) solution.
A special vascular fluid with special bleaching and coloring qualities for use on bodies with jaundice; usually with a low formaldehyde content.
Components of jaundice fluids:
High concentration of dye
Low formaldehyde (HCHO) content
A chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb moisture and has a limited amount of disinfection ability in a small amount
Composition of hardening compounds
Plaster of Paris - dehydrating agent (hardening compound)
Paraformaldehyde - disinfectant
Wood power – dehydrating agent (moisture absorbent)
Alum- dehydrating agent
A chemical in powder form; typically used for surface embalming of remains.
Will help to control maggots and vermin.
Materials used to provide a barrier or seal against any type of leakage of fluid or blood.