Chemistry Quarter Final Flashcards Preview

Trakesha's 4th Quarter > Chemistry Quarter Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemistry Quarter Final Deck (81):
1

any substance that imperils health or life when absorbed into the body

poison

2

poisonous substance produced by higher plants, animals, or bacteria that is toxic or poisonous to humans

toxins

3

Endotoxin or Exotoxin
cholera, tetanus

exotoxin

4

Endotoxin or Exotoxin
meningitis

endotoxin

5

amount poison necessary to kill 50% or ½ of the group to whom it has been given.

LD – 50 – Lethal Dose 50%

6

smallest dose of poison or radiation on record that process death. EXOTOXIN 0.00001gm or 8oz of milk – botcholism

MLD – Minimum Lethal Dose

7

liquid used in lip tense, external sealers, primarily used as solvents

Acetones

8

methanol 1 – used commercially to manufacture formaldehyde 2 – used as antipolymerizing agent, prevent paraformaldehyde solid form of formaldehyde 3 – ethanol used as preservatives, vehicle in cavity fluids

Alcohols

9

halogens – salt formers

Alkyl halides

10

Alkyl halides; 3 CL used as a disinfectant

Chloroform

11

Alkyl halides; 4 CL solvent or used as instrument disinfection

Carbon Tetrachloride

12

white crystal solid substance, used as a herbicide; added to preservative powders and hardening compounds

amitrole

13

terminal disinfection used in prep-room, neutralizes formaldehyde (cavity fluid spills), acid to base = salts (urotropin) plus water

Ammonia -NH3

14

from a tree it is derived, acts as ketone; hazardous chemical. Used as a solvent

camphor

15

used as a disinfectant / deodorizer air freshener

Cresol –Lysol

16

light brown powder used as fungicide (used to kill fungus)

Dichlorophene

17

colorless liquid used as solvent

Diethanol amine

18

colorless OILY liquid used as a solvent

Diethyl formamide

19

clear liquid with fruit like odor used as a perfuming agent

Ethyl acetate

20

used as anticoagulant in pre-injection with co-injection chemicals used as buffer.

EDTA (Sodium salts)

21

in free state gas, soluble in water, used as preservative

Formaldehyde

22

colorless liquid used as solvent . Acidic when less than pH 7. Active ingredient in bee stings and fire ant bites. Substance formed in the decomposition of formaldehyde

Formic acid

23

one of two supplementary germicides. A far superior disinfectant than formaldehyde. Has 5 carbon atoms, no standard but there is a formaldehyde standard

Glutaraldehyde

24

used as humectants in embalming fluids. (Emicated and dehydrated cases) (Example: antifreeze)

Glycols (dihydroxy alcohols)

25

bleaches NaOCl – sodium hyplorite – Clorox, Hilex, HCF- household bleach 1:9 parts is the 1:10. (Phosgene- gas that can be released if you add Clorox to a formaldehyde spill)

Hypochlorites

26

substance used as a propellant in aerosol spray products

Isobutane

27

colorless liquid, similar to acetone that is used as solvent

Methyl ethyl ketone (butanone)

28

used to clean cosmetic brushes

Mineral spirits (paint thinner, turpentine)

29

injection to help rebuild where tissue has been lost

Nitrocellulose (tissue builder)

30

colorless liquid used an insecticide chemical, added to preservative powders. (Topical embalming chemicals)

Orthodichlorobenzene

31

colorless solid used as a stripping agent (zip strip- furniture stripper)

Oxalic acid

32

mold preventative agent. Used in preservative powders

Paradichlorobenzene (moth balls)

33

white solid form of formaldehyde. Major preservative used in preservative powders

Paraformaldehyde

34

cauterizer to prevent leakage and bleaching agents on hand do it as injection not a cavity pack where applied to skin (rust in color)

Phenol / phenolic compounds

35

solid granular powder form, to create a cast of a broken area for restorative work in prep room, primary dehydrating agent used of hardening compounds

Plaster of Paris

36

drying powder, flesh colored or white colored used after application of oil based cosmetics to remove the sheen

Quartz (finishing powder)

37

used as supplementary germicide
Benzalkonium Chloride & Zephrian Chloride

Quaternary ammonium compounds

38

drying powder – finishing powder

Talc

39

colorless liquid used as solvent

Toluene

40

They are injected to disinfect, temporarily preserve and restore the dead human body without causing objectionable change in the tissues.

vascular fluids (arterial)

41

vascular fluids are generally classified by

index

42

the number of grams of formaldehyde gas dissolved in 100 ml of water; usually given in a percentage

index

43

Chemical which inactivates saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which bacteria thrive, and which will arrest decomposition by altering enzymes of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to a form less susceptible to decomposition. One of the components of arterial fluids.

preservative

44

Actions of preservative chemicals:

1. Inactivates the chemical group of proteins or amino acids
2. Inhibits further decomposition
3. Inactivates some enzymes
4. Kills some microorganisms – not all
5. Destroys odors

45

general formula (R-CHO) functional group
characteristic name ending in “-AL” means ALCOHOL
deprived of hydration – common name Formaldehyde

Aldehydes

46

(methanal) HCHO or CH 2 0
Produced by the partial oxidation of methylalcohol (methanol)

Formaldehyde

47

Characteristic of formaldehyde

Colorless gas
Has an irritating and unpleasant odor – pungent
Freely soluble in water
Combines with tissue protein
Is a monoaldehyde (one functional aldehyde group); H-”CHO” one CHO

48

general formula R-OH with name ending in “-OL”

Alcohols

49

(methanol or wood alcohol) has two primary uses
- used commercially to manufacture formaldehyde
- is also an antipolymerizing agent (ensures it stays in its liquid state)

Methyalcohol

50

(ethanol or grain alcohol)

Ethyalcohol

51

obtained by the distillation of coal tar.
Used as cauterizer to prevent leakage on embalmed bodies
Also, a bleaching agent - inject it do not use as a surface application

Phenol

52

One of the components of arterial fluids. Chemicals added for the purpose of destroying disease causing microorganisms

Supplementary GERMICIDES

53

Examples of supplementary germicides

1. Glutaraldehyde - better disinfectant used as a supplementary germicide.
2. Quaternary ammonium compounds – agents that are usually used for disinfection of skin, oral, nasal cavities, and instruments. EXAMPLES: Benzalkonium and Zephrian

54

Chemicals which retard the tendency of blood to become more viscous (thicker) by natural postmortem processes or prevent adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals. This process is primarily accomplished by breaking down the calcium in the blood and water. One of the components of arterial fluids.
- Also known as water conditioners or water softeners.
- These chemicals help keep blood in a liquid state

ANTICOAGULANTS

55

Examples of anticoagulants:

1. Sodium citrate– white, odorless, crystalline or granular material is often used for its anticoagulation. This compound inactivates calcium in the blood as well as in the water supply. W/O calcium, blood coagulation does not occur.

2. Sodium salt of EDTA = (Ethylenediaminetetrasodiumacetate) – very effective sequestering or chelating agents, means – they are readily combined with calcium ions to prevent blood coagulation and also to remove hardness chemicals from the water supply.

56

One of the components of arterial fluids. Liquids that serve as a solvent for the numerous ingredients that are incorporated into embalming fluids.
They must serve as the carrier of the components found in the arterial solution.
Most common is water.

VEHICLE

57

One of the components of arterial fluids. Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant odor.
Odorless or fumeless chemicals

PERFUMING AGENTS, DEODRANTS OR MASKING AGENTS

58

Examples of perfuming agents

Methylsalicylate (oil of wintergreen)
Benzaldehyde (oil of almonds)
Oil of sassafras
Oil of cloves

59

Substances which will, upon being dissolved, impart a definite color to the embalming solution and/or tissues.

DYES

60

EXAMPLES OF DYES

1. Eosin - red
2. Ponceau red - red
3. Erythrosine - brown-red tint.

61

Also called - surface tension reducers, wetting agents, and surface active agents. A chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so that it can flow through smaller apertures.
Used in promoting fluid diffusion.
Chemicals in dishwashing detergents that prevent sports on glasses

SURFACTANTS

62

Example of surfactants (wetting agents)

Sulfonate oils - an example is sodium lauryl sulfate (coconut oil)

63

Chemicals added to the embalming solution to deal with varying demands based upon the type of embalming, the environment, and the embalming fluid to be used. Chemicals which control the rate and extent of the embalming operation

MODIFYING AGENTS

64

Two modifying agents used in embalming fluids

Humectants
Buffers

65

A chemical that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture (chemical that helps to control dehydration). Emaciated cases

humectants

66

Chemicals used as humectants are:

a. Glycerol (glycerin) – thick stuff, member of alcohol family
b. Sorbitol
c. Lanolin’s – message stuff, liquid based.
d. Glycols – has 2 OH groups – active ingredients in antifreeze

67

Chemicals that will affect the acid-base balance (pH) within embalming solutions and in the embalmed tissue

Buffers

68

examples of buffers

a. Borax – reduces the hardening & graying action of formaldehyde.
b. Citrates
c. Sodium salt of EDTA
d. Sodium Phosphates -

69

Formulated to produce maximum disinfection and preservation with a minimum amount of fluid.

CAVITY FLUIDS

70

Composition of cavity fluid.

1. Preservatives
2. Germicides
3. Vehicle (primarily alcohols)
4. Perfuming agents

71

Fluid injected primarily to prepare the vascular system and body tissues for the injection of the preservative vascular solution. These fluids will also help keep the blood in a liquid state.

PRE-INJECTION FLUIDS

72

Components of pre-injection fluids

1. Anticoagulants
2. Surfactants
3. Humectants
4. Vehicle (primarily water)
5. Water conditioning agents

73

***Note***

Pre-injection fluids do not contain low preservatives

74

A fluid(s) used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of the vascular (arterial) solution.

CO-INJECTION FLUIDS

75

A special vascular fluid with special bleaching and coloring qualities for use on bodies with jaundice; usually with a low formaldehyde content.

JAUNDICE FLUIDS

76

Components of jaundice fluids:

Bleaching agents
High concentration of dye
Low formaldehyde (HCHO) content

77

A chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb moisture and has a limited amount of disinfection ability in a small amount

HARDENING COMPOUNDS

78

Composition of hardening compounds

Plaster of Paris - dehydrating agent (hardening compound)
Paraformaldehyde - disinfectant
Wood power – dehydrating agent (moisture absorbent)
Alum- dehydrating agent

79

A chemical in powder form; typically used for surface embalming of remains.
Will help to control maggots and vermin.

PRESERVATIVE POWDERS

80

Materials used to provide a barrier or seal against any type of leakage of fluid or blood.

SEALING AGENTS

81

Either in a liquid or gel form, used to dry and harden lesions, excisions and cavities.

SURFACE APPLICATIONS