Flashcards in Chemistry Exam 3 Deck (70):
The study of compounds which contain carbon
Comparison between organic (with element Carbon) and inorganic compounds.
In organic compounds the molecules are large.
All organic chemistry uses covalent bonding (sharing of electrons)
In chemical reactions of organic elements, the reaction is generally between molecules.
Organic chemistry occurs relatively slowly
Organic compounds are flammable
Major Classes of Organic compounds - for testing purposes – there are at least 10.
how many valence electrons does carbon contain in its outermost shell?
properties of carbon
combining capacity of 4 bonds
there are 4 basic elements with which carbon atoms will bond; one of those HAS to be a carbon atom. The other bonds will include _________, __________, and ________
every organic compound contains a minimum of ____ of carbon
carbon atoms will only share __, ___, or ___ atoms when bonding
every carbon atom has to have at least ___ bonds
the maximum number of bonds any carbon atom can share with another carbon atom is ___, they will never share ____ ____
All carbon atoms have a total of 4 bonds, it will only share a maximum of 4 with another carbon atom. This is what is known as a
the concept that organic compounds that have the same molecular formulas, but different structural formulas.
the ability of an element, such as carbon, to exist in one or more distinct forms
what are the 5 formulas in organic chemistry
e.g. CH20 - a chemical formula that expresses the total number of atoms of the different elements making up a compound. This is the simplest type of a chemical formula
a chemical formula shows the spatial arrangement of how the bonds are formed
e.g. H3 CH2 COH - a chemical formula written on a single line to conserve space
R-C00H - a chemical formula that represents a specific class or family of organic compounds
At a minimum, a general formula will consist of two parts: what are they?
1) Represented by the capital letter R - radical.
In organic chemistry, a radical is a variable length chain of carbon atoms that has lost a Hydrogen.
2) The functional group -the part that makes it a unique member to that group of compounds.
an expression of the fixed ratio between carbon and hydrogen in hydrocarbons
R-CO-R1 (pronounced R prime)
R-COO-R1 r coor
(coors light beer with an s)
Roar the ether bunny
example of alcohol
the most common ketone
(acetone nail polish remover)
the x in the alkyl halide represents
that there is at least one atom of a halogen (salt former)
two most famous members of the alkyl halide
trichloromethane (chloroform) and tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride)
Represented by the capital letter R; A variable length chain of carbon atoms that has lost a Hydrogen
the simplest of the organic compounds that only consist of two elements - hydrogen and carbon
hydrocarbons which only possess single bonds between the carbon atoms in that compound’s longest chain.
the family of saturated hydrocarbons which only contain a single bond present between carbon atom and the longest chain
typed formula for alkanes
examples of alkanes
Methane (marsh or swamp gas)
Ethane (natural gas)
Propane (bar-b-q gas)
An alkane which has lost one of its hydrogen atoms. The only hydrocarbon that will ever have an odd number of hydrogen atoms. By itself any radical or alkyl group cannot exist.
R e.g.: methyl, ethyl.
typed formula for alkyl group
R stands for the alkyl groups and X for a member of the halogens or salt former. You must have at least one atom of the Halogen family present.
Alkyl Halide - RX –
any hydrocarbon which has the presence of at least one multiple bond. A multiple bond is either a double bond or triple bond.
unsaturated hydrocarbons which has the presence of at least one double bond between carbon atoms in the longest chain
typed formula for alkenes
example of an alkene
a family of unsaturated hydrocarbons which has the presence of at least one triple bond between carbon atoms in the longest chain
typed formula for alkynes
example of an alkyne
any compound based on the benzene ring. A closed chain hydrocarbon. They have a distinct odor or aroma
the parent compound of all aromatic compounds. A closed chain structure.
a group of six carbons in the shape of a hexagon and double triple bonds.
three symbols for benzene ring
a solvent used in embalming. (a hazardous chemical)
used to cauterize (prevents leakage) and as a bleaching agent. THIS IS LISTED WITH TWO GROUPS
2. organic compounds which contain one or more OH groups. The name of the OH functional group in organic chemistry is the hydroxyl group. Based on the number of OH groups in which the structure contains
general formula for alcohol
classifications of alcohols according to the number of OH groups
any alcohol which only possesses one hydroxyl group
two types of monohydroxy alcohols
The OH group will always be attached to one or no other carbon atoms.
First member of the alcohol family. Used commercially to manufacture formaldehyde. Used as an anti-polymerizing agent.
Methanol, Methyl alcohol, wood alcohol
another member of the primary monohydroxy alcohol discussed beside methanol
Ethanol, Ethyl, grain alcohol, booze
the carbon to which the single OH group is itself attached to exactly two (2) and only two (2) carbons.
an example of a secondary monohydroxy alcohol
alcohols which contain exactly two OH groups
example of dihydroxy alcohol
alcohols which contain exactly three OH groups
examples of trihydroxy alcohols
Glycerine, Glycerol (Humectant in embalming)
alcohols which contain four or more OH groups
example of polyhydroxy alcohol
Sorbitol - used as a humectant in embalming