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Flashcards in Chemistry Exam 3 Deck (70):
1

The study of compounds which contain carbon

organic chemistry

2

Comparison between organic (with element Carbon) and inorganic compounds.

In organic compounds the molecules are large.
All organic chemistry uses covalent bonding (sharing of electrons)
In chemical reactions of organic elements, the reaction is generally between molecules.
Organic chemistry occurs relatively slowly
Organic compounds are flammable
Major Classes of Organic compounds - for testing purposes – there are at least 10.


3

how many valence electrons does carbon contain in its outermost shell?

4

4

properties of carbon

combining capacity of 4 bonds
carbon-to-carbon
isomerism
allotropism

5

there are 4 basic elements with which carbon atoms will bond; one of those HAS to be a carbon atom. The other bonds will include _________, __________, and ________

oxygen
nitrogen
hydrogen

6

every organic compound contains a minimum of ____ of carbon

one atom

7

carbon atoms will only share __, ___, or ___ atoms when bonding

1,2,3

8

every carbon atom has to have at least ___ bonds

4

9

the maximum number of bonds any carbon atom can share with another carbon atom is ___, they will never share ____ ____

3
all 4

10

All carbon atoms have a total of 4 bonds, it will only share a maximum of 4 with another carbon atom. This is what is known as a

triple bond

11

the concept that organic compounds that have the same molecular formulas, but different structural formulas.

isomerism (isomers)

12

the ability of an element, such as carbon, to exist in one or more distinct forms

allotropism

13

what are the 5 formulas in organic chemistry

molecular
structural
line
general
typed

14

e.g. CH20 - a chemical formula that expresses the total number of atoms of the different elements making up a compound. This is the simplest type of a chemical formula

Molecular

15

a chemical formula shows the spatial arrangement of how the bonds are formed

Structural

16

e.g. H3 CH2 COH - a chemical formula written on a single line to conserve space

Line

17

R-C00H - a chemical formula that represents a specific class or family of organic compounds

General

18

At a minimum, a general formula will consist of two parts: what are they?

1) Represented by the capital letter R - radical.
In organic chemistry, a radical is a variable length chain of carbon atoms that has lost a Hydrogen.
2) The functional group -the part that makes it a unique member to that group of compounds.

19

an expression of the fixed ratio between carbon and hydrogen in hydrocarbons

Typed

20

R-OH

Alcohol

21

R-CHO

Aldehyde

22

R-COOH
Cooh group

Organic acid

23

R-CO-R1 (pronounced R prime)
R core

Ketone

24

R-COO-R1 r coor
(coors light beer with an s)

Ester

25

R-O-R1
Roar the ether bunny

Ether

26

R-NH2

Amine

27

R-X

Alkyl halide

28

example of alcohol

hydroxyl

29

the most common ketone

dimethyl ketone
(acetone nail polish remover)

30

the x in the alkyl halide represents

that there is at least one atom of a halogen (salt former)

31

two most famous members of the alkyl halide

trichloromethane (chloroform) and tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride)

32

Represented by the capital letter R; A variable length chain of carbon atoms that has lost a Hydrogen

radical

33

the simplest of the organic compounds that only consist of two elements - hydrogen and carbon

Hydrocarbons

34

hydrocarbons which only possess single bonds between the carbon atoms in that compound’s longest chain.

Saturated

35

the family of saturated hydrocarbons which only contain a single bond present between carbon atom and the longest chain

Alkanes

36

typed formula for alkanes

Cn H2n+2

37

examples of alkanes

Methane (marsh or swamp gas)
Ethane (natural gas)
Propane (bar-b-q gas)

38

An alkane which has lost one of its hydrogen atoms. The only hydrocarbon that will ever have an odd number of hydrogen atoms. By itself any radical or alkyl group cannot exist.

alkyl
R e.g.: methyl, ethyl.

39

typed formula for alkyl group

Cn H2n+1

40

R stands for the alkyl groups and X for a member of the halogens or salt former. You must have at least one atom of the Halogen family present.

Alkyl Halide - RX –

41

any hydrocarbon which has the presence of at least one multiple bond. A multiple bond is either a double bond or triple bond.

Unsaturated

42

unsaturated hydrocarbons which has the presence of at least one double bond between carbon atoms in the longest chain

Alkenes

43

typed formula for alkenes

Cn H2n

44

example of an alkene

Ethene (ethylene)

45

a family of unsaturated hydrocarbons which has the presence of at least one triple bond between carbon atoms in the longest chain

Alkynes

46

typed formula for alkynes

Cn H2n-2

47

example of an alkyne

Ethyne (acetylene)

48

any compound based on the benzene ring. A closed chain hydrocarbon. They have a distinct odor or aroma

aromatic

49

the parent compound of all aromatic compounds. A closed chain structure.

benzene

50

a group of six carbons in the shape of a hexagon and double triple bonds.

benzene ring

51

three symbols for benzene ring

smiling face
frowning face
lug nut

52

a solvent used in embalming. (a hazardous chemical)

toulene

53

used to cauterize (prevents leakage) and as a bleaching agent. THIS IS LISTED WITH TWO GROUPS

phenol

54

2. organic compounds which contain one or more OH groups. The name of the OH functional group in organic chemistry is the hydroxyl group. Based on the number of OH groups in which the structure contains

alcohols

55

general formula for alcohol

R-OH

56

classifications of alcohols according to the number of OH groups

monohydroxy
dihydroxy
trhydroxy
polyhydroxy

57

any alcohol which only possesses one hydroxyl group

monohydroxy

58

two types of monohydroxy alcohols

primary
secondary

59

The OH group will always be attached to one or no other carbon atoms.

primary monohydroxy

60

First member of the alcohol family. Used commercially to manufacture formaldehyde. Used as an anti-polymerizing agent.

Methanol, Methyl alcohol, wood alcohol

61

another member of the primary monohydroxy alcohol discussed beside methanol

Ethanol, Ethyl, grain alcohol, booze

62

the carbon to which the single OH group is itself attached to exactly two (2) and only two (2) carbons.

secondary monohydroxy

63

an example of a secondary monohydroxy alcohol

2-propanol
isopropyl alcohol
rubbing alcohol

64

alcohols which contain exactly two OH groups

dihydroxy

65

example of dihydroxy alcohol

1,2 Ethanediol

66

alcohols which contain exactly three OH groups

Trihydroxy alcohol

67

examples of trihydroxy alcohols

Glycerine, Glycerol (Humectant in embalming)

68

alcohols which contain four or more OH groups

Polyhydroxy alcohol

69

example of polyhydroxy alcohol

Sorbitol - used as a humectant in embalming

70

Cauterizer (prevents leakage) and as a bleaching agent. THIS IS LISTED IN TWO GROUPS

Phenol or Carbolic Acid