Chemistry Exam 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemistry Exam 5 Deck (95):
1

Another highly specialized type of proteins are the

enzymes

2

Enzymes function primarily as

organic catalysts

3

agents which may alter chemical reaction without itself begin permanently changed (used up)

catalysts

4

naming of enzymes

nomenclature

5

The compound or type of compound upon which an enzyme works

substrate

6

most enzymes are named by adding this suffix to the root name of the substrate

ase

7

catalysts the breakdown of its substrate urea

urease

8

two general classes of enzymes

proteases
lipases

9

enzymes which breakdown proteins

proteases

10

enzymes which breakdown lipids (fats & oils)

lipases

11

those enzymes catalyzing the decomposition of human remains are generally __________ and __________ in nature

proteolytic
hydrolytic

12

Splitting or tearing apart of compounds by the addition of water. 2nd definition: a chemical reaction between a salt and water which yields or produces an acid and base of equal strength

hydrolysis

13

The two distinct sources of putrefactive catalysts

saprophytic bacteria
lysosomes

14

organisms that obtain their food from dead organic matter

saprophytic bacteria

15

special structure in certain cells, upon death of a cell releases autolytic enzyme; a chemical defense against infection; present in tears

lysosomes - lysozyme – bactericidal

16

A unique characteristic of lysosomes (cells) are their ability to self-digest surrounding cellular substances. This self-cell digestion is referred to as

autolysis

17

carbohydrates are composed of

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

18

carbohydrates are structurally _________ and ______ derivatives of ___________

aldehyde
ketone
polyhydroxy alcohols

19

three important aspects of carbohydrates

1) Carbohydrates will have at least four (4) or more OH Groups since they are polyhydroxy alcohols.
2) If it was an aldehyde derivative you would find the carbohydrate on an end carbon.
3) If it was ketone derivative you would find the carbohydrate off a non-end carbon.

20

simple sugars which cannot be hydrolyzed into smaller carbohydrate molecules. They do not undergo hydrolysis

monosaccharides

21

simple sugars that contain 6 carbons

hexoses

22

these two simple sugars occur freely in nature

glucose and fructose

23

common name for glucose

blood sugar

24

what is the molecular formula for glucose

C6H12O6

25

simple sugar that is derived from an aldehyde; carbonyl group is attached to an end carbon

aldose

26

glucose is an (aldose/ketose)

aldose

27

a sugar derived from a ketone; carbonyl group is attached to non-end carbon

ketose

28

common name for fructose

fruit sugar

29

a monosaccharide with 3 carbons

triose

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a monosaccharide with 4 carbons

tetrose

31

a monosaccharide with 5 carbons

pentose

32

a monosaccharide with 6 carbons

hexose

33

a monosaccharide with 7 carbons

heptose

34

are carbohydrates that can be hydrolyzed into two (2) monosaccharides. They are formed when 2 monosaccharides combine by splitting a molecule of water.

disaccharides

35

three major disaccharides

lactose
maltose
sucrose

36

a disaccharide: also called milk sugar; the basis for lactic acid in milk

lactose

37

a disaccharide: also called malt sugar or grain sugar; found in germinating grains

maltose

38

a disaccharide: also called table sugar, cane sugar, or beet sugar; from sugar canes and beets

sucrose

39

complex sugars; those carbohydrates which yield many (three or more) monosaccharides upon hydrolysis.

polysaccharides

40

an example of a polysaccharide: potatoes& crackers

starch

41

an example of a polysaccharide: stored from of glucose

glycogen

42

an example of a polysaccharide: substance that termites can break down, but we can't

cellulose

43

the breakdown of a compound into simpler units by addition of the components of water

hydrolysis

44

do not undergo hydrolysis

monosaccharides

45

upon hydrolysis form two monosaccharides

disaccharides

46

are first hydrolyzed into two or more dissachrides then complete yield many monosaccharides

polysaccharides

47

The process by which carbohydrates decompose by enzymes

fermentation

48

starch in grains may be used as a source of

ethyl alcohol

49

the bursting of sugar

saccharolysis

50

the branch of chemistry that deals with compounds produced by living organisms

biochemistry

51

are biochemical compounds of major importance; defined as - an organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and sometimes phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) and polymers of amino acids

proteins

52

the decomposition of proteins

proteolysis

53

compounds which contain two functional groups: the carboxyl group - COOH and the amino group - NH2. These are the building blocks of proteins

amino acids

54

The simplest amino acid

glycine

55

glycine is a member of what group

COOH

56

all amino acids have both the _________ group and the ________ group; therefore, they too may act as acids and bases.

carboxyl
amino

57

properties of amino acids

amphoteric
buffers

58

the ability of a substance, such as an amino acid, to act as an acid or base.

amphoretic

59

any compounds that protects a solution against changes in pH

Buffers

60

By definition, a protein is a chain of amino acids joined together by the

peptide linkage

61

Glycine and alanine can be joined to each other by the elimination of one molecule of water to form a

dipeptide

62

decomposition of proteins either in putrefaction or decay

Proteolysis

63

The anaerobic decomposition of proteins brought about by the action of enzymes is called

putrefaction

64

the decomposition of proteins by enzymes of aerobic bacteria

Decay

65

Putrefaction involves three major chemical reactions:

hydrolysis
deamination
decarboxylation

66

the final hydrolytic products of putrefaction

amino acids

67

the absorption of the liquid portion of blood by the surrounding tissue following death

imbibition

68

the removal of the amino group from the amino acid; formaldehyde reacts with ammonia to produce hexamathylene tetraamine (utrotopin)

deamination

69

the removal of the carboxyl group from an amino acid to yield carbon dioxide water and an amine

decarboxylation

70

The final decomposition products are:

1) Hydrocarbons
2) Organic acids
3) Amines (NH2) and ammonia (NH3)- functional group- amino
4) Carbon dioxide
5) Hydrogen sulfide - Sulfur

71

function as the insulating layer of the body. The structural component in cell membranes and as storage as energy

Lipids

72

Lipids are commonly referred to as

fats and oils

73

Properties of lipids:

1) Insoluble in water.
2) Soluble in organic solvents.
3) Have the same elements present as do sugars and carbohydrates (carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen). The insolubility of lipids distinguishes them from carbohydrates.

74

Lipids are classified on the basis of

their hydrolysis products

75

are products of hydrolysis which produces fatty acids and glycerol are those products of fats and oils. Compounds whose products of hydrolysis are fatty acids and alcohols

Simple lipids

76

whether the lipids is a fat or oil depends on

its physical state

77

a simple lipid; which at room temperature is solid or semi-solid. It contains a high percentage of saturated fatty acids

fat

78

a simple lipid; which at room temperature is solid or semi-solid. They are liquid and contain a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids

oil

79

physical properties of simple lipids

solubility and emusification

80

- The act of mixing two insoluble liquids

emulsification

81

the measure of how well two substances mix

solubility

82

physical state of lipids

fats are solid at room temperature and oils are liquid at room temperature

83

chemical changes of lipids

final products of hydrolysis
saponification (only associated with fats)

84

A chemical property of lipids is when fatty acids or oils are boiled (soap making) - a reaction between a fatty acid and strong base which produces glycerol and salt of a fatty acid - (a soap). Although the products are technically salts, commonly they are referred to as soap.

saponification

85

a white waxy material produced by saponification of body fat. If a body is buried in alkaline soil. It can be produced over a period of time; also known as grave wax

adipocere

86

lipids formed from combo of unsaturated and/or saturated fatty acids with high molecular weight alcohols, others than glycerol

waxes

87

Examples of waxes: beeswax, carnuba, lanolin

beeswax, carnuba, lanolin

88

A common name for any fat/oil

triglyceride

89

are those products of hydrolysis which result in fatty acids, an alcohol and other compounds

compound lipids

90

types of compound lipids

a. Glycolipids
b. Sphingolipids
c. Phosolipids

91

various steroids such as cholesterol hormones

Miscellaneous lipids (Derived lipids)

92

three types of miscellaneous lipids (derived lipids)

a. Terpenes- menthol, rubber
b. Steroids
c. Cholesterol

93

high density lipoprotein 200 or less

HDL
good cholesterol

94

low density lipoprotein 130 or above

LDL
bad cholesterol

95

very low density lipoprotein

VLDL