Flashcards in RA Exam 1 Deck (128)
mathematical relationship of the size of the features to each other and or to the head or with the width or length of the face
the vertical measurement of a part of a feature
The value of study of facial proportions…
1. Note the similarities in the size of facial features
2. Note the differences in size relationships
Everything is guided by
Standard or norm which an embalmer can compare the deceased
Canon of Beauty
Bilateral form of the head and features
Most faces don’t match symmetrically, they’re asymmetrical:
Both eyes may not be the same width.
One side of the mouth may be wider than the other.
One side of the nose may be wider than the other.
One cheek may be more prominent than the other.
The ears exhibit the greatest differences in position, form and size.
The four surfaces of the face that exhibit a similarity of bilateral curvatures.
Forehead / Cheeks / Superior integumentary lip / Chin
Horizontally, the face is divided by ____ lines, which create ___ special zones
the 1st horizontal division of the face
divide the face into two equal halves by drawing a line at:
1. Vertex of the cranium (top of the head).
2. Line of eye closure
3. Base of the chin
the 2nd horizontal division of the face
divide the face in three equal parts by drawing lines through:
4. The normal hairline
5. Eyebrow and top of the ear
6. Base of the nose and base of ear lobe
7. Base of the chin
the 3rd horizontal division of the face
divide the area between the base of the nose and the base of the chin into three equal parts by drawing lines through:
8. Base of the nose
9. Line of closure of the lips
10. Top of the chin
11. Base of the chin
Vertical lines are used to determine the width of head features by using _____________as a standard of measurement
the width of the eye
1st vertical division of the face
Extension from the medial corner of each eye to the corner of the wing of the nose.
2nd vertical division of the face
Extend a line down from the lateral corner of each eye. The line will extend to the sides of the face.
3rd vertical division of the face
Extend a line down from the middle of the eye. This line will extend to the corner of the mouth
Using different facial features as units of measurements for the face
widest part of the head is measured by the distance between
the two parietal eminences
The face is ______ long
The length of the nose is equal to ?
length of the ear
The width of the nose at the wings is equal to?
the width of the ear
The face is ________ from zygomatic arch to zygomatic arch
five eyes wide
The distance between the eyes is equal to
the width of one eye
The mouth is _______ wide
The superior border of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as?
The inferior border of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as
the base of the nose
The face is _____ long
“When using the thumb and index finger as a unit of measure, hold the thumb parallel to the index finger. The distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the finger is equal to the following measurements:
The length of the ear
The length of the nose
The normal hairline to the root of the nose
The base of the nose to the bottom of the chin.”
Which four measurements are equal?
Ear passage to the tip of the nose
Eyebrow to the base of the chin
Hairline to the base of the nose
Ear passage to ear passage.
the height of an average adult
7 ½ to 8 heads tall
the most common geometric head shape
The distance from the root of the nose to the base of the wing of the nose is equal to
the length of the first two joints of the index finger
The vertical distance from the base of the nose to the line of closure of the lips is equal to
the distance from the tip of the index finger to the first joint
The width of the face is equal to
two thirds of the length of the face
exhibit the greatest differences in position, form and size.
bilateral form is simply
exhibit the greatest differences in position, form, and size
features enhancing asymmetry
eyelids & eyebrows
nose & mouth
this view will show size, length, and width of features in the relationship to the face
this view will show appearance of the lips and fullness of the cheeks
this view will shoe appearance of lips and the fullness of the cheeks
three quarter view
what position would you look at a photo to get the same view that an embalmer would use for RA
inverted or upside down position
try to secure a photograph for both
wax restorations and everyday cosmetics
advantages of a portrait
size is good
disadvantages of a portrait
advantages of snapshot
may reveal imperfections
in a portrait or a snapshot you will get which view
surface lying at right angles to the source of illumination which reflects the maximum amount of light. Help to reveal fullness of the chin, upper lip, and nose
surface which does not lie at right angle to the source of illumination; they are obscured by other surfaces and which reflect little or no light
lighting from above; when there is no special placement
specific guided lighting; this lighting is purposeful
flash photography; very dark with a burst of light from flash
the silhouette of the face from a side view
Refers to the difference of paired features; the two sides of a feature or both “halves” of the face. (Difference between the two ears). Glossary definition: lack of symmetry, balance, or proportion
relating to, or having two sides (of face or feature).
a hollow or shallow concave area in a surface
a part extending beyond the level of its surroundings.
features enhancing asymmetry
1. Eyelids & eyebrows
4. Nose & mouth
the lips meet at a point ______ the distance from the base of the nose to base of the chin
the superior border of the chin is located _____ the distance from the base of the chin to the base of the nose
the line of closure of the mouth is located ______ the distance from the base of the nose to the superior border of the chin
the superior border of the chin lies ________ the distance from the base of the chin of the line of closure of the mouth
the line of closure of the mouth is located _______ the distance from the base of the chin to the base of the nose
the lower third of the face may be divided into ____ relatively equal divisions
of the width of the right eye measures one and one half inches, the distance between the eyes will be approximately ____ inches
if the measurement of one eye was two inches wide, the face at its widest point should measure ______ inches
the distance from the eyebrow to the base of the nose is approximately equal to the
length of the ear
roughly, the length of the ear is equal to the distance from the ________ to the normal hairline
the superior border of the ear lies on the same transverse plane as the
profile is composed of a protruding forehead and a receding chin
most common type of facial profile
convex concave profile has _______ chin
when both the forehead and chin protrude, they denote a ________ profile
a _______ profile has a receding forehead and a vertical chin
most common head shape
infantine head shape
head shape where the forehead, cheeks and jawline are approximately the same width
least common head shape
head shape where the greatest width is across the cheekbones
the outline or surface form
application of a color which is lighter or brighter than the complexion would highlight the complexion; application of a color darker than the complexion color would shadow the complexion
highlighting and shadowing with cosmetics
giving or casting of light
a photograph or painting in which the subject has been posed and lighted flatteringly by a professional photographer or artist
the side view of the human head
- the return of light waves from the surface; the bending or folding back of a part upon itself
from the side view of the head, there are 3 basic forms. What are they?
profile type; the forehead, upper lip and chin project to an imaginary vertical line. (The standard). Not any one feature protrudes or recedes more than the other two
Vertical (balanced/perindicular) profile
the most common profile type. The forehead recedes posteriorly from the eyebrows, while the chin recedes form the plane of the upper lip
the least common profile type. The forehead protrudes beyond the eyebrows, and the chin protrudes beyond the infanite retrousee plane of the upper lip
in a profile combination the first term refers to the description of the
in a profile combination the second term refers to the relationship of the
lower lip and chin
the so called ideal shape. The cheekbones are wider than the cranium, and the cranium is slightly wider than the lower jaw. The entire face appears to be composed of soft, rounded curves
short, with full cheeks and a rounded, fuller jawline and a rounded cranium.
Cranium that exhibits the maximum amount of curvature throughout
appears to be short and composed of straight lines. The forehead, jawline, and cheeks are approximately the same width. The hairline is often straight. Exhibits very little curvature
appears slightly wider at the jawline than at the cheekbone and forehead. The forehead is the narrowest feature. Eyes are close-set. This is least common head shapes
Characterized by a jawline that is narrower than the cheekbone or forehead. The forehead is the widest feature of the face. Eyes are wide-set.
Characterized by wide cheekbones and narrow forehead and jawline. The greatest width is across the cheekbone
Long and narrow, the forehead and chin may be rounded or square. The nose usually long.
The organ of hearing consisting of the external ear, the middle ear, and the internal ear
these change less in a lifetime than any other facial feature
the ear is made of
(except the lobe)
ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES OF THE TEMPORAL BONE USED FOR LOCATING THE MODELED EAR:
external auditory meatus
divides length of the ear in half; gives approximation of ear
hinged portion of mandibular articulation; located behind and below the ear passage; gives us general idea of where ear passage is
internal ear bones
(these have no effect on surface form)
hollows or cavities of the ear
the orifice that leads into the hearing organ. Is not visible from the frontal view or from the direct profile view
a hollow or cavities; concave shell of the ear; located behind and above the ear passage; deepest depression of the ear; its vertical dimension can be cut in half or divided into a couple of sections because of the crust (leg) that comes through
a hollow or cavity; second deepest depression of the ear. Bifurcation between the crura of the antihelix
a hollow or cavity; shallowest depression of the ear. Fossa between inner and outer rims of the ear. Sometimes it very tough to find this
opening between tragus and antitragus, “spillway” of the ear
elevations or ridges
1. Helix & crus
2. Antihelix & crura
the question mark shaped outer rim of the ear. It begins superior to the lobe and ends by attaching to the cheek. The outer rim of the ear
the origin of the outer rim lying in the concha. The crus is lateral to (lies upon) the zygomatic arch. Can originate in the anterior area of the concha. ????
Crus of the helix
the inner rim of the ear, it is wider than the helix
the bifurcation of the antihelix referred to as the anterior and superior branches
the depression between the crura and the helix.
the shallowest depression lying posteriorly between the inner and outer rims
concave shell of the ear, marks the middle one third (1/3) of the ear, deepest depression of the ear
the small elevation arising from the cheek and protecting the ear passage.
small eminence obliquely opposite of the tragus. It is located on the superior border of the earlobe
the hollow between the tragus and antitragus, anteriorly on the upper border of the lobe
the fatty inferior one third (1/3) of the ear. Does not have any cartilage.
Its anterior border attaches to the face or cheek