RA Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Trakesha's 4th Quarter > RA Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in RA Exam 1 Deck (128):
1

mathematical relationship of the size of the features to each other and or to the head or with the width or length of the face

facial proportions

2

length

vertical

3

width

horizontal

4

the vertical measurement of a part of a feature

height

5

The value of study of facial proportions…

1. Note the similarities in the size of facial features
2. Note the differences in size relationships

6

Everything is guided by

proportions

7

Standard or norm which an embalmer can compare the deceased

Canon of Beauty

8

Bilateral form of the head and features

Most faces don’t match symmetrically, they’re asymmetrical:
Both eyes may not be the same width.
One side of the mouth may be wider than the other.
One side of the nose may be wider than the other.
One cheek may be more prominent than the other.
The ears exhibit the greatest differences in position, form and size.

9

The four surfaces of the face that exhibit a similarity of bilateral curvatures.

Forehead / Cheeks / Superior integumentary lip / Chin

10

Horizontally, the face is divided by ____ lines, which create ___ special zones

8
6

11

the 1st horizontal division of the face
divide the face into two equal halves by drawing a line at:

1. Vertex of the cranium (top of the head).
2. Line of eye closure
3. Base of the chin

12

the 2nd horizontal division of the face
divide the face in three equal parts by drawing lines through:

4. The normal hairline
5. Eyebrow and top of the ear
6. Base of the nose and base of ear lobe
7. Base of the chin

13

the 3rd horizontal division of the face
divide the area between the base of the nose and the base of the chin into three equal parts by drawing lines through:

8. Base of the nose
9. Line of closure of the lips
10. Top of the chin
11. Base of the chin

14

Vertical lines are used to determine the width of head features by using _____________as a standard of measurement

the width of the eye

15

1st vertical division of the face

Extension from the medial corner of each eye to the corner of the wing of the nose.

16

2nd vertical division of the face

Extend a line down from the lateral corner of each eye. The line will extend to the sides of the face.

17

3rd vertical division of the face

Extend a line down from the middle of the eye. This line will extend to the corner of the mouth

18

Using different facial features as units of measurements for the face

PROPORTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

19

widest part of the head is measured by the distance between

the two parietal eminences

20

The face is ______ long

three noses

21

The length of the nose is equal to ?

length of the ear

22

The width of the nose at the wings is equal to?

the width of the ear

23

The face is ________ from zygomatic arch to zygomatic arch

five eyes wide

24

The distance between the eyes is equal to

the width of one eye

25

The mouth is _______ wide

two eyes

26

The superior border of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as?

the eyebrows

27

The inferior border of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as

the base of the nose

28

The face is _____ long

three ears

29

“When using the thumb and index finger as a unit of measure, hold the thumb parallel to the index finger. The distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the finger is equal to the following measurements:

The length of the ear
The length of the nose
The normal hairline to the root of the nose
The base of the nose to the bottom of the chin.”

30

Which four measurements are equal?

Ear passage to the tip of the nose
Eyebrow to the base of the chin
Hairline to the base of the nose
Ear passage to ear passage.

31

the height of an average adult

7 ½ to 8 heads tall

32

the most common geometric head shape

Oval

33

The distance from the root of the nose to the base of the wing of the nose is equal to

the length of the first two joints of the index finger

34

The vertical distance from the base of the nose to the line of closure of the lips is equal to

the distance from the tip of the index finger to the first joint

35

The width of the face is equal to

two thirds of the length of the face

36

exhibit the greatest differences in position, form and size.

ears

37

bilateral form is simply

bilateral silhouette

38

exhibit the greatest differences in position, form, and size

ears

39

features enhancing asymmetry

eyelids & eyebrows
ears
cheeks
nose & mouth

40

this view will show size, length, and width of features in the relationship to the face

frontal view

41

this view will show appearance of the lips and fullness of the cheeks

profile view

42

this view will shoe appearance of lips and the fullness of the cheeks

three quarter view

43

what position would you look at a photo to get the same view that an embalmer would use for RA

inverted or upside down position

44

try to secure a photograph for both

wax restorations and everyday cosmetics

45

advantages of a portrait

size is good

46

disadvantages of a portrait

"touch up"
artistic lighting

47

advantages of snapshot

may reveal imperfections

48

in a portrait or a snapshot you will get which view

frontal

49

reveal asymmetry

inversion

50

surface lying at right angles to the source of illumination which reflects the maximum amount of light. Help to reveal fullness of the chin, upper lip, and nose

Highlight

51

surface which does not lie at right angle to the source of illumination; they are obscured by other surfaces and which reflect little or no light

Shadow

52

lighting from above; when there is no special placement

Normal lighting

53

specific guided lighting; this lighting is purposeful

Directional lighting

54

flash photography; very dark with a burst of light from flash

Flat lighting

55

the silhouette of the face from a side view

facial profiles

56

Refers to the difference of paired features; the two sides of a feature or both “halves” of the face. (Difference between the two ears). Glossary definition: lack of symmetry, balance, or proportion

asymmetry

57

relating to, or having two sides (of face or feature).

bilateral

58

a hollow or shallow concave area in a surface

depression

59

a part extending beyond the level of its surroundings.

projection

60

features enhancing asymmetry

1. Eyelids & eyebrows
2. Ears
3. Cheeks
4. Nose & mouth

61

the lips meet at a point ______ the distance from the base of the nose to base of the chin

one third

62

the superior border of the chin is located _____ the distance from the base of the chin to the base of the nose

one third

63

the line of closure of the mouth is located ______ the distance from the base of the nose to the superior border of the chin

one half

64

the superior border of the chin lies ________ the distance from the base of the chin of the line of closure of the mouth

one half

65

the line of closure of the mouth is located _______ the distance from the base of the chin to the base of the nose

two thirds

66

the lower third of the face may be divided into ____ relatively equal divisions

3

67

of the width of the right eye measures one and one half inches, the distance between the eyes will be approximately ____ inches

3

68

if the measurement of one eye was two inches wide, the face at its widest point should measure ______ inches

10

69

the distance from the eyebrow to the base of the nose is approximately equal to the

length of the ear

70

roughly, the length of the ear is equal to the distance from the ________ to the normal hairline

eyebrow

71

the superior border of the ear lies on the same transverse plane as the

eyebrows

72

protrudes

concave

73

recedes

convex

74

profile is composed of a protruding forehead and a receding chin

concave convex

75

most common type of facial profile

convex

76

convex concave profile has _______ chin

protruding

77

when both the forehead and chin protrude, they denote a ________ profile

concave

78

a _______ profile has a receding forehead and a vertical chin

convex vertical

79

most common head shape

oval

80

infantine head shape

round

81

head shape where the forehead, cheeks and jawline are approximately the same width

square

82

least common head shape

triangle

83

head shape where the greatest width is across the cheekbones

diamond

84

the outline or surface form

contour

85

application of a color which is lighter or brighter than the complexion would highlight the complexion; application of a color darker than the complexion color would shadow the complexion

highlighting and shadowing with cosmetics

86

giving or casting of light

illumination

87

a photograph or painting in which the subject has been posed and lighted flatteringly by a professional photographer or artist

professional portrait

88

the side view of the human head

profile

89

- the return of light waves from the surface; the bending or folding back of a part upon itself

reflection

90

from the side view of the head, there are 3 basic forms. What are they?

vertical
convex
concave

91

profile type; the forehead, upper lip and chin project to an imaginary vertical line. (The standard). Not any one feature protrudes or recedes more than the other two

Vertical (balanced/perindicular) profile

92

the most common profile type. The forehead recedes posteriorly from the eyebrows, while the chin recedes form the plane of the upper lip


Convex profile

93

the least common profile type. The forehead protrudes beyond the eyebrows, and the chin protrudes beyond the infanite retrousee plane of the upper lip

Concave profile

94

in a profile combination the first term refers to the description of the

forehead

95

in a profile combination the second term refers to the relationship of the

lower lip and chin

96

the so called ideal shape. The cheekbones are wider than the cranium, and the cranium is slightly wider than the lower jaw. The entire face appears to be composed of soft, rounded curves

oval

97

short, with full cheeks and a rounded, fuller jawline and a rounded cranium.
Cranium that exhibits the maximum amount of curvature throughout
(Infantine)

ROUND

98

appears to be short and composed of straight lines. The forehead, jawline, and cheeks are approximately the same width. The hairline is often straight. Exhibits very little curvature

SQUARE

99

appears slightly wider at the jawline than at the cheekbone and forehead. The forehead is the narrowest feature. Eyes are close-set. This is least common head shapes

TRIANGLE

100

Characterized by a jawline that is narrower than the cheekbone or forehead. The forehead is the widest feature of the face. Eyes are wide-set.

INVERTED TRIANGLE

101

Characterized by wide cheekbones and narrow forehead and jawline. The greatest width is across the cheekbone

DIAMOND

102

Long and narrow, the forehead and chin may be rounded or square. The nose usually long.

OBLONG

103

The organ of hearing consisting of the external ear, the middle ear, and the internal ear

the ear
(pinna)

104

these change less in a lifetime than any other facial feature

ears

105

the ear is made of

cartilage
(except the lobe)

106

ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES OF THE TEMPORAL BONE USED FOR LOCATING THE MODELED EAR:

external auditory meatus
zygomatic arch
mandibular fossa
mastoid process

107

divides length of the ear in half; gives approximation of ear

zygomatic arch

108

hinged portion of mandibular articulation; located behind and below the ear passage; gives us general idea of where ear passage is

mastoid process

109

internal ear bones
(these have no effect on surface form)

malleus
incus
stapes

110

hollows or cavities of the ear

ear passage
concha
triangular fossa
scapha
intertragic notch

111

the orifice that leads into the hearing organ. Is not visible from the frontal view or from the direct profile view

ear passage

112

a hollow or cavities; concave shell of the ear; located behind and above the ear passage; deepest depression of the ear; its vertical dimension can be cut in half or divided into a couple of sections because of the crust (leg) that comes through

concha (shell)

113

a hollow or cavity; second deepest depression of the ear. Bifurcation between the crura of the antihelix

triangular fossa

114

a hollow or cavity; shallowest depression of the ear. Fossa between inner and outer rims of the ear. Sometimes it very tough to find this

scapha

115

opening between tragus and antitragus, “spillway” of the ear

intertragic notch

116

elevations or ridges

1. Helix & crus
2. Antihelix & crura
3. Tragus
4. Antitragus
5. lobe

117


the question mark shaped outer rim of the ear. It begins superior to the lobe and ends by attaching to the cheek. The outer rim of the ear

Helix

118


the origin of the outer rim lying in the concha. The crus is lateral to (lies upon) the zygomatic arch. Can originate in the anterior area of the concha. ????

Crus of the helix

119


the inner rim of the ear, it is wider than the helix

Antihelix

120


the bifurcation of the antihelix referred to as the anterior and superior branches

Crura

121


the depression between the crura and the helix.

Triangular fossa

122

the shallowest depression lying posteriorly between the inner and outer rims

Scapha

123

concave shell of the ear, marks the middle one third (1/3) of the ear, deepest depression of the ear

Concha

124

the small elevation arising from the cheek and protecting the ear passage.

Tragus

125

small eminence obliquely opposite of the tragus. It is located on the superior border of the earlobe

Antitragus

126

the hollow between the tragus and antitragus, anteriorly on the upper border of the lobe

Intertragic notch

127

the fatty inferior one third (1/3) of the ear. Does not have any cartilage.
Its anterior border attaches to the face or cheek

Lobe

128

(Use the anterior margin of the ear as a guide). This line can be somewhat parallel to a line on the boney
profile going from the glabella to the maxilla. From a profile view the line would be parallel to a line
from brow to upper lip

INCLINATION OF THE EAR