Grief Counseling Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Grief Counseling Exam 1 Deck (56):
1

the scientific study of human behavior

Psychology

2

the study of human behavior as related to funeral service

Funeral Service Psychology

3

the EXPERIENCE of the emotion of grief…a STATE of deprivation of something valuable

Bereavement

4

an adjustment PROCESS which involves grief and/or sorrow over a period of time and helps in the REORGANIZATION of the life of an individual following a loss or death of someone loved

Mourning

5

an EMOTION or set of emotions due to a loss

Grief

6

the study of death

Thanatology

7

an irrational, exaggerated fear of death

Thanatophobia

8

counseling defined by Webster
(The dictionary begins with the letter A)

advice, especially that given as a result of consultation

9

counseling defined by Edgar Jackson
(the math teacher)

anytime someone helps someone else with a problem

10

counseling defined by Carl Rogers

good communication within and between men; or good [free] communication within or between men is always therapeutic (preferred style among FD)

11

preferred style of counseling is defined by whom?

Carl Rogers

12

an individual who provides assistance and guidance

counselor

13

a treatment of mental or emotional disorder

psychotherapy

14

NEEDS OF THE BEREAVED…

• To confirm reality
• To establish stability and security
• To receive emotional support
• To express emotions
• To modify emotional ties to the deceased
• To provide a basis for building new inter-personal relationships

15

PURPOSES AND VALUES OF THE FUNERAL RITE

• The opportunity to receive and express love
• To show respect for the family, friends and the deceased
• To provide an opportunity to express grief
• Provides for a face to face confrontation with death…confirm the reality that death has occurred
• To gain emotional support through sharing…“Joy expressed is joy increased, grief shared is grief diminished.”
• Theological, psychological and social needs of those who mourn are nourished
• Provides an opportunity for farewell through ritual
• Provides a dramatic presentation of the fact that a life has been lived by reflecting upon memories of the deceased
• Helps establish emotional stability through a social support network
• Establishes a socially accepted climate for mourning and expression of feelings

16

Theories of Grief—Lindemann
p10, “Normal Grief”
Coconut Grove fire, 1942, over 500 dead
“The Symptomatology and Management of Acute Grief” – 1944, he introduced the Grief Syndrome
Survivor guilt

**

17

• Somatic or bodily distress of some type
• Preoccupation with the image of the deceased
• Guilt relating to the deceased or circumstances of the death
• Hostile reactions (anger)
• Inability to function as before the loss (sense of absolute helplessness)

ERIC LINDEMANN – GRIEF SYNDROME

18

• Studied the question, “Why do people grieve?”
• Attachments come from a need for security and safety (not for biological need)
• Situations that endanger the bond of attachment give rise to emotional reactions
• The greater the potential for loss, the more intense the reaction

JOHN BOWLBY…ATTACHMENT THEORY…POST LOSS GRIEF

19

who adapted the five stages of death and dying?

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross

20

What are the five stages of death and dying?

Denial and isolation
anger
bargaining
depression
acceptance
(DABDA)

21

what is probably the most useful stage of death and dying?

depression

22

WILLIAM WORDEN- FOUR TASKS OF MOURNING

1. To accept the reality of the loss
2. To work through the pain of grief
3. To adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing
4. To emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life

23

wrote an early paper “Mourning and Melancholia” in 1917 which he pointed out that depression, which he called “melancholia,” was a pathological form of normal grief

He also came up with the concept of “grief work” which implies that the mourner needs to take action

SIGMUND FREUD

24

C.M. PARKES- FOUR PHASES OF MOURNING

1. Period of numbness
2. Phase of yearning
3. Phase of disorganization and despair
4. Phase of reorganized behavior

25

MANIFESTATIONS OF NORMAL GRIEF- WILLIAM WORDEN (4)

FEELINGS
PHYSICAL SENSATIONS
COGNITIONS (THOUGHT PATTERNS)
BEHAVIORS (OBSERVABLE)

26

according to William Worden, what is the most common feeling associated with grief

sadness

27

MANIFESTATIONS OF NORMAL GRIEF- WILLIAM WORDEN
Feelings

• Sadness – the most common feeling
• Anger
o Frustration
o A regressive experience of the loss of someone close
• Guilt and self-reproach
• Anxiety
• Loneliness
• Fatigue
• Helplessness
• Shock
• Yearning
• Emancipation
• Relief
• Numbness

28

MANIFESTATIONS OF NORMAL GRIEF- WILLIAM WORDEN
Physical Sensations

• Hollowness in the stomach
• Tightness in the chest
• Tightness in the throat
• Oversensitivity to noise
• Sense of depersonalization
• Feeling of short of breath
• Weakness in the muscles
• Lack of energy
• Dry mouth

29

MANIFESTATIONS OF NORMAL GRIEF- WILLIAM WORDEN
Cognitions (Thought Patterns)

• Disbelief
• Confusion
• Preoccupation with thoughts of the deceased
• Sense of presence
• Hallucinations

30

MANIFESTATIONS OF NORMAL GRIEF- WILLIAM WORDEN
Behaviors (Observable)

• Sleep disturbances
• Appetite disturbances
• Absentminded behavior
• Social withdrawal
• Dreams of the deceased
• Avoiding reminders of the deceased
• Searching and calling out
• Sighing
• Restless over-activity
• Visiting places or carrying around objects that remind the survivor of the deceased
• Treasuring objects that belonged to the deceased

31

MEDIATORS OF MOURNING- WILLIAM WORDEN (8)

1. Who the person that died was
2. Nature of the attachment: strength and security of the attachment, ambivalence (conflicting feelings directed towards the person or object) in the relationship, conflicts with the deceased, dependent relationships
3. Mode of death: natural (long or short duration), accidental, suicide, homicide
4. Historical antecedents: previous losses and how these were grieved
5. Personality variables: age and gender of the survivor, person’s coping style, cognitive style, self-esteem and self-efficiency, person’s belief and values
6. Social variables: support availability, support satisfaction, social role involvements, religious resources and ethnic expectations.
7. Concurrent stresses
8. Circumstantial factors influencing grief: involvement of hospice, use of a living will

32

the intense physical and emotional expression of grief occurring as the awareness increases of a loss of someone or something significant

acute grief

33

blame directed toward ANOTHER PERSON

Anger*

34

a term to describe the experience of grief, especially in young bereaved parents where mourning customs are unclear due to an inappropriate death and the absence of prior bereavement experience; typical in a society that has attempted to minimize the impact of death through medical control of disease and social control of those who deal with the dying and the dead

Anomic grief

35

- a syndrome characterized by the presence of grief in anticipation of death or loss; the actual death comes as a confirmation of knowledge of a life-limiting condition

Anticipatory grief

36

the tendency in human beings to make strong affectional bonds with others coming from the need for security and safety

Attachment theory (Bowlby)

37

the experience of the emotion of grief…a state of deprivation of something valuable

Bereavement

38

grief extending over a long period of time without resolution; also called abnormal grief

Complicated (Unresolved, chronic) grief

39

a therapeutic experience for reasonably healthy persons. Do NOT confuse this with psychotherapy

Counseling (Ohlsen)

40

the defense mechanism by which a person is unable or refuses to see things as they are because such facts are threatening to the self

Denial

41

a defense mechanism in which anger is redirected toward a person or object other than the one who provided the anger originally

Displaced aggression

42

the ability to enter into and share the feelings of others

Empathy (Wolfelt)

43

the study of human behavior as related to funeral service

Funeral service psychology

44

an emotion or set of emotions due to a loss

Grief

45

helping people facilitate uncomplicated grief to a healthy completion of the tasks of grieving within a reasonable time frame

Grief therapy (Worden)

46

blame directed toward ONE’S SELF BASED ON REAL OR UNREAL CONDITIONS

Guilt*

47

historically an inn for travelers, especially one kept by a religious order; also used to indicate a concept designed to treat patients with a life-limiting condition

Hospice

48

intervention with people whose needs are so specific that usually they can only be met by specifically trained physicians or psychologists. The practitioners in this field need special training because they often work with deeper levels of consciousness.

Psychotherapy (Jackson)

49

the ASSUMPTION of blame DIRECTED TOWARDS ONE’S SELF BY OTHERS

Shame*

50

the reaction of the body to an event; often experiences emotionally as a sudden, violent, and upsetting disturbance

Shock

51

guilt felt by family and friends after a death

Survivor guilt

52

sincere feelings for the person who is trying to adjust to a serious loss

Sympathy

53

loss in mourner's life not socially sanctioned

disenfranchised grief
ex. affair, alternate lifestyle

54

two losses associated with disenfranchised grief

socially negated losses
socially unspeakable losses

55

a typpe of disenfranchsed loss: those losses that society treats as non losses

socially negated losses
ex. pregnancy (spontaneous or induced)

56

a type of disenfranchised loss: specific losses about which mourner has a difficult time with talking about the death

socially unspeakable losses
ex. suicide, AIDS