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Flashcards in Chp 1 Historical Perspective Deck (66):
1

***START***
Lieutenant Colonel Charles _______ and Richard ______, Esq., the authors of the first instruction manual, adapted their text from the 1803 military manual of the Irish constabulary police, entitled Military Training and Moral Training .

Lieutenant Colonel Charles Rowan and Richard Maynes

2

The force (LMP) was organized into ranks of s_______, I_____, s______, and police constables

superintendent, inspectors, sergeants, and police constables

3

1750-1900

Industrial Revolution and Traditional Management Model

4

1900 to present

Scientific management

5

1925 to present

Human relations and participative management

6

1945 to present

Behavioral management

7

1960 to present

Systems management

8

1980 to present

Proactive police management

9

The force’s authorized strength of _____ men in 1829 was arrived at by attempting to deter-mine, in as logical a to determine, in as logical a fashion as possible, the relationship between disorder and crime in each section of London and the personnel necessary to deal with it.

3,295

10

Another important component of this fledgling force (LMP) was the principle of _______. As Reith points out in his history of police, “ In England, each separate police force in the provinces is established under local authority which in the boroughs is the _______ of the town or city council and in the counties the ________ of the county council, comprising justices of the peace and county councilors in equal numbers. . . . There is no central headquarters, no minister or chief of police.”

local control

Watch Committee

Standing Joint Committee

11

...this concept was exported to America. As a result, the selection of constables and the election of sheriffs in the United States have to this day been strictly controlled and zealously guarded by their respective communities. The political need for _______ and __________ severely curtailed the creation of countrywide or metropolitan police agencies in the United States.This reluctance to consolidate or combine forces in light of _______ is a major issue for proactive police managers.

local control and the federal system of government

modern- day economics

12

In the United States, the lack of ______ between agencies has created a career ladder within the agency that has had the opposite effect: increased local control. The American promotional system leads to some special management problems in the areas of both ______ and _____.

lateral entry

training and control.

13

With the passing of the ______, many federal employees were placed under a civil service merit system governing conditions of their employment in an effort to reduce the political interference that had prevailed since the Jacksonian era. Shortly thereafter, civil service reform spread throughout the states.

Pendleton Act of 1870

14

The new era, created by the scientific management writers and leaders after 1900, gave rise to _______ in policing.

civil service reforms

15

Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States, served as police commissioner for the City of New York from _____ to ____.

May 1895 to April 1897

16

They also had a strong sense of morality and viewed unregulated alcohol sales and widespread prostitution as evil. Similar to Robert Peel, Berman discusses that Roosevelt initiated a number of reforms that focused on the following:
• Adoption of ___________, such as rank titles and uniforms, to improve the image and identity of the department.
• _______ control under one command structure starting with the commissioner to address the system of fiefdoms under a politically connected precinct captain.
• A system of ________ to weed out corrupt and ineffective officers and supervisors
• Hiring standards based on ______ and _______ rather than political connections.
• Increased _______ to address job tasks and improve performance
• Reduction of _________, such as overseeing boarding houses

military titles and traditions

Centralized

discipline

competitive testing and a civil service system

training

nonpolice tasks

17

In their classic textbook on public administration, Nigro and Nigro refer to scientific management as the machine model, where emphasis is on efficiency, orderliness, and output. They cite Frederick Taylor as providing the four basic principles of this approach:
1. Division of _____ and _____
2. Unity of _____ and centralization of _______.
3. One- way ______.
4. Narrow span of _____.

labor and specialization

command and centralization of decision making

authority

control

18

They cite Frederick Taylor as providing the four basic principles of this approach: 1. Division of labor and specialization 2. Unity of command and centralization of decision making 3. One- way authority 4. Narrow span of control This, along with the ________ organized bureaucracy developed by Max Weber, became the basic conceptual structure for _________.

monocratically

scientific management

19

This, along with the monocratically organized bureaucracy developed by Max Weber, became the basic conceptual structure for scientific management. As Nigro and Nigro point out, the emphasis was on “ r_____, p_______, I______, t_______, and a________.” This model fit well with the already existing semi-military model of police organization, where the manager was definitely in charge of the organizational machinery.

rationality, predict-ability, impersonality, technical competence, and authoritarianism

20

In their early study of bureaucracy , B___ and M_____give us three stages of developing bureaucracies that are also characteristics of police organizations. First, _______ replace unpaid work by _______. Then a ______ component is added, and the owners are separated from ________. Finally, managers are expected to have _________. This has had further implications that are distinctly nondemocratic, namely, that “ bureaucratic authority . . . prevents the group itself from conferring the position of leadership upon the member of their choice”

Blau and Meyer

cash salaries

family members

clerical

management

professional qualifications

21

One of the thrusts of _________ is to have professional police managers replace political appointees, whereby authority is then conferred by expertise and professional standards.

scientific management

22

_______ served as a patrol officer under August Vollmer, chief of the Berkeley, California, Police Department, from 1921 to 1925. His career included being chief of police in F______, California ( 1925– 1928), and W_____, Kansas ( 1928– 1939); professor of criminology at the University of California at Berkeley ( 1939– 1960); and then dean ( 1950– 1960). In World War II, he served as chief public safety officer in Italy, England, and Germany ( 1943– 1947). From 1960 to 1967, he was the reform- minded chief of police in the C______ Police Department.

Orlando Winfield Wilson

Fullerton

Wichita

Chicago



23

O. W. Wilson's book, __________, first published in 1950, became the most influential management textbook for use by modern police managers and police management faculties in the United States.

Police Administration

24

Basically, Wilson carried on Vollmer’s sound approach to police management under the main principles of encouraging the following:
1. A professional police department divorced from _____.
2. Rigorous police ______ and _______ processes
3. Use of the _________ available for law enforcement

politics

personnel selection and training

latest technological innovations

25

Interestingly, Wilson was both committed to the professionalization of policing and opposed to ______. He felt that ________ and rules of seniority hampered the police chief in selecting the most qualified personnel for law enforcement and promotion to leadership positions.

civil service

civil service tests

26

Wilson organized his book around three basic administrative processes: ( 1) p_____, ( 2) a_____, and ( 3) c_______. In 1963 , he wrote, “ Wisely conceived plans are the keystones of administration; without them the entire venture may fail". He went on to explain the key part planning has in his organizational scheme. Good planning, based on the study of needs and used as a continuing process, serves to ________, to implement the policy underlying its aims and purposes, to direct its efforts into the proper channels, and to guide in both training and performance. He saw the process of activating as one primarily of ______ and ______.

( 1) planning, ( 2) activating, and ( 3) controlling

bind an organization together

organization and leadership.

27

Accordingly (O.W. Wilson), “ the essence of leadership is the ability to obtain from each member of the force the ________ that he has the capacity to render”. Wilson stressed that this leadership was a _______ and that relying on _______ ultimately means a failure of leadership. His third process of control related to police organizations was ______. He opposed the creation of __________ since police leadership should be accountable for all officers’ actions. He was concerned with punishing officers who used excessive force.

highest quality of service

positive force

punishments

accountability

civilian review boards

28

Other Contributors
Other noted works on police organization based on the scientific approach appearing throughout this period were ______American Police Administration ( 1921 ), _____The Police and Modern Society ( 1936 ), ______European Police Systems ( 1915 ) and American Police Systems ( 1920 ), Municipal Police Administration ( 1943) published by the __________ICMA, and _____Police Systems in the United States ( 1940 ).

Elmer D. Graper’s American Police Administration ( 1921 ),
August Vollmer’s The Police and Modern Society ( 1936 )
Raymond B. Fosdick’s European Police Systems ( 1915 ) and American Police Systems ( 1920 )
Municipal Police Administration ( 1943) published by the International City Managers Association,
Bruce Smith’s Police Systems in the United States ( 1940 ).

29

What appears in the writings of these early observers is skepticism toward municipal police operations and a willingness of police officials to blame immigrants and other public officials for crime problems. One theme that is most common, however, is the ______by police officials.

resistance to change

30

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
Basically, this model does not exist in any one department. It has some of the p_____of the scientific management model and some of the d_____of the team policing approach and its variations.

personnel thrust
democratization

31

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
The _______approach considers the police executive to be a team leader who creates a cooperative effort among line officers through the use of a management team.

human relations

32

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
In Maslow’s terms, the police executive is a self- actualizing individual who helps fulfill the s_____, s_____, and a____ needs of the personnel in his or her police organization.

social security, self- esteem, and autonomy

33

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
As found in _(who)______ Theory X and Theory Y approach, the manager is responsible for motivating personnel and developing talent.

McGregor’s

34

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
As found in McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y approach, the manager is responsible for motivating personnel and developing talent. This is done organizationally by having the manager create______ and provide _____ so that all members can realize their potential in contributing to the organization.

create opportunities and provide guidance

35

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
As found in McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y approach, the manager is responsible for motivating personnel and developing talent. This is done organizationally by having the manager create opportunities and provide guidance so that all members can realize their potential in contributing to the organization. The theme here is that management should be ____ centered.

group

36

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
According to T_____ and S______ ( 1975) , the manager would basically operate from two premises: 1. The manager defines limits within which the group makes decisions. 2. The manager and the group jointly make decisions within limits defined by organizational constraints.

Tannenbaum and Schmidt

37

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt ( 1975) , the manager would basically operate from two premises:
1. The ____defines _____ within which the group makes decisions.
2. The ____and____jointly _____within limits defined by organizational constraints.

1)manager defines limits
2) manager and the group jointly make decisions

38

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
The ______approach, in theory, views the police manager acting as a primus inter pares ( first among equals) rather than as a traditional autocratic administrator.

team policing

39

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
The team policing approach, in theory, views the police manager acting as a ______rather than as a traditional autocratic administrator.

primus inter pares ( first among equals)

40

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
The human relations approach is especially germane to the participatory management model where full- service and multispecialist teams operate with strong community commitment. In other words, team policing is an adaptation of ______ to the field.

McGregor’s Theory Y

41

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
When we examine the components causing stress among police officers, the twin Maslow needs of ___and____come into play.

autonomy and security

42

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
Personnel g____ and p_____ matters play as large a role in producing stress on the job as does the work on the streets.

grievance and promotion

43

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
With the strong perception of danger and the need for alertness to deal with the unexpected in the field, police officers have a special drive and a need for s____ on the job.

security

44

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
Participatory management, when applied correctly, may solve (security on the job) these problems. Traditional, ______management often fails to deal with these human relations problems in a satisfactory manner.

autocratic scientific

45

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
Theorists such as James March and Karl Weick have concluded that it is the informal structures that generally result in getting things done. Popular in this vein were a series of “ p______” based on work by Tom Peters and coauthors ( In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best Run Companies ( 1982 ) and A Passion for Excellence: The Leadership Difference ( 1985 )) that veer away from traditional management models and recommend people- oriented, humanistic systems as the basis for future national and international competition by U. S. businesses.

prescriptions

46

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
Allied with the participative management model is the concept of _____ teams or _____ teams created by management to address a certain problem.

quality teams
project teams

47

HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
Allied with the participative management model is the concept of quality teams or project teams created by management to address a certain problem. This forms the basis of total quality management ( TQM), which uses the participative approach among employees to improve products or service. These concepts are also discussed in Chapter 3 . It is important to note that companies using these approaches retain, for the most part, the _______model.

traditional hierarchy

48

BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT, 1945 TO PRESENT, AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, 1960 TO PRESENT
These approaches have had their most significant impact in the areas of ____organization, ____budgeting, and ______planning.

fiscal organization, day- to- day budgeting, and short- and long- range planning

49

BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT, 1945 TO PRESENT, AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, 1960 TO PRESENT
Although often seen as competing with the human relations approach, as both systems have evolved in the ____, the systems– behavioral management approach complements much of the human relations approach, having developed mechanisms for accountability as it integrated quantitative measures for both fiscal and human behavior goals.

1980s

50

BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT, 1945 TO PRESENT, AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, 1960 TO PRESENT
A behavioral goal has three major components: 1. A goal stated in an ____manner so that any ordinary person would be able to see, hear, taste, smell, or feel something 2. A criterion of success that is normally _____3. A context in which to _____ the goal developed in empirical terms

1. empirical
2. less than 100 percent
3.measure

51

Community Policing, Problem- Solving Policing, and Intelligence- Led Policing
_______ policing, which involves the community in police decision making on general policy affecting the community and crime, continues to be a widely used approach in theory.

community

52

Community Policing, Problem- Solving Policing, and Intelligence- Led Policing:
Community policing, which involves the community in police decision making on general policy affecting the community and crime, continues to be a widely used approach in theory. It incorporates _______policing, which attempts to solve specific crime problems in the community.

problem- solving

53

A new approach is ________policing, which focuses on the criminal and crime analysis.

intelligence- led

54

William Bratton
Using reengineering, a corporation model, he created 12 task forces to shake up the department to deal with overall ______, which should be the major product of any police department

crime reduction

55

William Bratton
The crime- patrol planning model _____was his major success when he was commissioner of the NYPD.

Compstat

56

Lee Brown began his career in _____ as a patrol officer in San Jose, California.

1960

57

Lee Brown
While he was chief of the Houston Police Department, Brown initiated one of the early models of community policing, which he called ______policing ( NOP).

neighborhood- oriented

58

In New York City, Commissioner Brown continued with his philosophy of community policing, initiating _______ policing ( POP).

problem- oriented

59

In New York City, ______continued with his philosophy of community policing, initiating problem- oriented policing ( POP).

Commissioner Brown

60

________is the first person to serve twice as police commissioner of New York City: 37th commissioner, 1992– 1994, and 41st commissioner, 2002 to present.

Raymond Kelly

61

Conclusion
Every theoretical approach offers something of operational and theoretical use to the modern police executive. The secret of success is to s____ and s____the approaches that will work for a particular department, given its specific problems and political context.

select and synthesize

62

Conclusion
Proactive police managers who have been professionally trained and college educated synthesize contributions from all periods of police management. From the traditional model, these managers develop a finely honed sense of ________ .

bureaucratic organization

63

Conclusion
Proactive police managers who have been professionally trained and college educated synthesize contributions from all periods of police management. The _______period focused on goals and the placing of these goals in organizational context.

scientific management

64

Conclusion
The scientific management period focused on goals and the placing of these goals in organizational context. O. W. Wilson and William H. Parker adapted the basic bureaucratic model from Max Weber to make Weber’s model functional in today’s communication- sophisticated society. The approach depends on having a central organization along with the ability to respond ______to ordinary as well as unusual crises.

rapidly

65

Conclusion
Proactive police managers who have been professionally trained and college educated synthesize contributions from all periods of police management. Although the ______approach tended to overemphasize the importance of democratic management, its emphasis on the vital importance of human relations and personnel skills contributed significantly to modern police administration.

human relations

66

Conclusion
______especially are important to the morale and the optimal use of personnel.

Sergeants