Flashcards in PPM Overview Deck (289):
refer to __________ as the machine model, where emphasis is on efficiency, orderliness, and output.
They cite Frederick Taylor as providing the four basic principles of this approach: 1. Division of labor and specialization 2. Unity of command and centralization of decision making 3. One- way authority 4. Narrow span of control This, along with the monocratically organized bureaucracy developed by Max Weber ( see Chap-ter 4 for a (seeChap-ter4fora discussion of Weber’s principles) , became the basic conceptual structure for ________
In their early study of _________, Blau and Meyer give us three stages of developing _______ that are also characteristics of police organizations. First, cash salaries replace unpaid work by family members. Then a clerical component is added, and the owners are separated from management. Finally, managers are expected to have professional qualifications.
served as a patrol officer under August Vollmer, chief of the Berkeley, California, Police Department, from 1921 to 1925. His career included being chief of police in Fullerton, California ( 1925– 1928), and Wichita, Kansas ( 1928– 1939); professor of criminology at the University of California at Berkeley ( 1939– 1960); and then dean ( 1950– 1960).
Orlando Winfield Wilson
From 1960 to 1967, he was the reform- minded chief of police in the Chicago Police Department. His book, Police Administration , first published in 1950, became the most influential management textbook for use by modern police managers and police management faculties in the United States.
Orlando Winfield Wilson
Basically,_______ carried on Vollmer’s sound approach to police management under the main principles of encouraging the following: 1. A professional police department divorced from politics 2. Rigorous police personnel selection and training processes 3. Use of the latest technological innovations available for law enforcement ( e. g., maximum use of patrol cars, radio systems, and computerized record keeping)
Orlando Winfield Wilson
was both committed to the professionalization of policing and opposed to civil service. He felt that civil service tests and rules of seniority hampered the police chief in selecting the most qualified personnel for law enforcement and promotion to leadership positions.
Orlando Winfield Wilson
organized his book around three basic administrative processes: ( 1) planning, ( 2) activating, and ( 3) controlling.
Orlando Winfield Wilson
developed the police and prison plans for the invasion of Europe and organized democratic police departments in Frankfurt and Munich
William H. Parker
main contribution was to the implementation of scientific management in the LAPD, one of the largest police departments in the country, during his tenure as chief from 1950 to 1968.
William H. Parker
was known for his strong stand on effective law enforcement, accountability, technocratic innovations, and commitment to police professionalism.
William H. Parker
Gazell ( 1976) summed up ________ internal changes to police organizations with many examples such as the creation of internal affairs and planning units. He also spearheaded the use of one- person patrols, the need for traffic enforcement, and the need to deal with alcoholism among police officers.
William H. Parker
His willingness to take on technological and some organizational innovation in the spirit of scientific management served to encourage other departments throughout the country to accept these innovations. This became especially true when the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration ( LEAA) was willing to provide startup costs and basic capital throughout the 1970s.
William H. Parker
Other noted works on police organization based on the scientific approach appearing throughout this period were ________’s American Police Administration ( 1921 ),
Elmer D. Graper
Other noted works on police organization based on the scientific approach appearing throughout this period were __________’s The Police and Modern Society (1936 ),
Other noted works on police organization based on the scientific approach appearing throughout this period were ________’s European Police Systems ( 1915 ) and American Police Systems ( 1920 ),
Raymond B. Fosdick
Other noted works on police organization based on the scientific approach appearing throughout this period were ________’s Police Systems in the United States ( 1940 ).
Basically, this model does not exist in any one department. It has some of the personnel thrust of the scientific management model and some of the democratization of the team policing approach and its variations.
HUMAN RELATIONS AND PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT, 1925 TO PRESENT
The __________ approach considers the police executive to be a team leader who creates a cooperative effort among line officers through the use of a management team.
The theme here is that management should be group centered. According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt ( 1975) , the manager would basically operate from two premises: 1. The manager defines limits within which the group makes decisions. 2. The manager and the group jointly make decisions within limits defined by organizational constraints.
human relations approach
The ________ approach, in theory, views the police manager acting as a primus inter pares ( first among equals) rather than as a traditional autocratic administrator.
The ________ approach is especially germane to the participatory management model where full- service and multispecialist teams operate with strong community commitment.
In other words, ________ is an adaptation of McGregor’s Theory Y to the field.
When we examine the components causing _____ among police officers, the twin Maslow needs of autonomy and security come into play. Basically, the police officer needs to feel that he or she has the prospect of a promotion along a reasonable career line and that his or her job is relatively stable and free from potentially capricious management. Personnel grievance and promotion matters play as large a role in producing _______ on the job as does the work on the streets.
With the strong perception of danger and the need for alertness to deal with the unexpected in the field, police officers have a special drive and a need for security on the job. __________, when applied correctly, may solve these problems. Traditional, autocratic scientific management often fails to deal with these human relations problems in a satisfactory manner. Departmental ___________ models, in which mid- level and line personnel have an important say on how to address local crime problems, become an essential element of community policing , which is discussed in Chapter 8 .
_________ results in more individualized accountability to discipline and rewards. Allied to this is the term empowerment , which is commonly found in many police articles on __________. By definition, empowerment is a condition whereby employees have the authority to make decisions and to take action in their work areas without prior approval.
Allied with the _________ model is the concept of quality teams or project teams created by management to address a certain problem. This forms the basis of total quality management ( TQM), which uses the participative approach among employees to improve products or service.
These approaches have had their most significant impact in the areas of fiscal organization, day- to- day budgeting, and short- and long- range planning. Although often seen as competing with the human relations approach, as both systems have evolved in the 1980s
BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT, 1945 TO PRESENT, AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, 1960 TO PRESENT
A _________ has three major components: 1. A goal stated in an empirical manner so that any ordinary person would be able to see, hear, taste, smell, or feel something 2. A criterion of success that is normally less than 100 percent 3. A context in which to measure the goal developed in empirical terms
Proponents of the _________ approach developed a number of systems for accountability, forward planning, and fiscal organization:
1. Management by objectives ( MBO)
2. Program evaluation and review techniques ( PERT)
3. Programming, planning, and budgeting ( PPB)
4. Organizational development ( OD)
5. Zero- based budgeting ( ZBB)
______, which involves the community in police decision making on general policy affecting the community and crime, continues to be a widely used approach in theory.
_______, which attempts to solve specific crime problems in the community.
problem- solving policing
_________ approach, which attempts to improve a neighborhood in terms of trash pickup, clean streets, good lighting, and so on.
Various aspects of this approach are discussed throughout the chapters and reviewed in detail. However, the most significant elements can be outlined here:
1. Objective of policing is crime prevention
2. Strong commitment to community involvement
3. Modern bureaucracy, range of control techniques
4. Full- service department with multispecialist teams
5. Full use of modern communication models ( both technological/ computer and human relations techniques)
6. Modern budgeting and accounting systems in full use 7. Great emphasis on forward emergency and crisis management planning
8. Consultative management approach ( all elements of organization consulted; management team makes final decisions and organizes the implementation of policy decisions)
9. Data- driven department with optimal use of modern technology
10. Emphasis on art of the possible and operational utility of management approaches
Proactive Police Management
started as a patrol officer in the Boston, Massachusetts, Police Department, and attained the rank of superintendent in 1980, the highest ranking position. He was awarded the Boston Police Department’s highest medal for valor, which he earned by facing down a bank robber and rescuing a hostage in 1975.
He was instrumental in merging the Transit Police and New York City’s Housing Police with the New York City Police Department ( NYPD).
Using reengineering, a corporation model, he created 12 task forces to shake up the department to deal with overall crime reduction, which should be the major product of any police department.
He embraced community policing and problem solving as major efforts in dealing with the community in individual precincts. He sends a clear message for one of the major goals of community policing: “ Police can return to the role for which we were invented: preventing crime. . . . Police can control behavior with crime prevention”
is based on four major principles: 1. Timely, accurate intelligence: He emphasized that old information did not work; only up- to- date information worked. 2. Rapid response: He gives an example of target hardening a site to stop terrorists from blowing it up, in other words, crime prevention. 3. Effective tactics: To stop drug dealers, for example, the focus should be on a place where there have been a great number of shootings. 4. Relentless follow- up:
began his career in 1960 as a patrol officer in San Jose, California. He was sheriff of Mulnomah County, Oregon; commissioner of public safety in Atlanta; chief of the Houston Police Department, 1982– 1990; New York City police commissioner, 1990– 1992; and director of national drug policy, 1993– 1995. He held a cabinet position in the federal government and became the first African American mayor of Houston in 1998.
Lee P. Brown
While he was chief of the Houston Police Department, _______ initiated one of the early models of community policing, which he called neighborhood- oriented policing ( NOP). He wanted to involve citizens directly with the police. He wanted to change the police officer from an enforcer of neighbor-hood beats to an officer who would become involved with problem solving with the community. The beats were redesigned to conform to neighborhoods, and beat officers were permanently assigned to specific neighborhoods. Some investigation was decentralized. Police supervisors and managers were encouraged to support beat officers in solving neighborhood problems. The deterrence of crime became the criteria for evaluating the beat officer. This meant that there should be less crime, traffic accidents, and calls for service because the beat officers were solving problems.
Lee P. Brown
is the first person to serve twice as police commissioner of New York City: 37th commissioner, 1992– 1994, and 41st commissioner, 2002 to present. Based on the experiences of the World Trade Center bombings, the department has focused on terrorism from a city and worldwide perspective.
Raymond W. Kelly
The Ultimate Symbol of Solidarity: The Police Funeral
Perception of Violence and Psychological Distance
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POLICE SUBCULTURE
1. Do not give up another cop. Regardless of the case . never provide information to the public or superior officers.
2. Watch out for your partner first and then for the rest of the shift . . . inform a fellow officer if he or she is being investigated by internal affairs.
3. If you get caught off base, do not implicate anybody else . . . do not involve other cops who might also be punished.
4. Hold up your end of the work. Malingering draws attention to everyone on the shift.
5. Do not suck up to the bosses for special favors.
Postulates of Invisibility
The __________ involves the organization chart and lines of authority ( e. g., police chief, deputy chief, inspectors, captains, lieutenants, sergeants, and police officers).
In the early 1920s and 1930s, under the leadership of Elton Mayo, the Harvard Business School conducted a series of research projects...... Many observers refer to this as the beginning of the human relations approach to management. The key to this approach was the discovery of the informal organization and its communication system.
The Hawthorne Study
The key to this approach was the discovery of the informal organization and its communication system.
The Hawthorne Study
Deep and extensive
Face- to- face
Intimate Relaying a sense of belonging
A response to a whole person rather than to a fragmented social role
primary group, communication
where there is a high degree of cohesion and the group is often perceived as an enlarged kinship ( e. g., when male officers speak of their partners as if they were talking about their spouses).
impersonal and formal, and relations are based on specialized roles.
• Personal development
• Sense of security
• Sense of well- being
• Sense of being accepted for one’s self
• Sense of sustaining one’s identity and defining that identity
Primary groups provide the following for individual members:
• Support or undermine the formal police organization
• Form a powerful informal police structure
• Have a mediating function, binding the individual to the larger police organization
• Have a major role in creating social stability in the police organization and in society in general
role of primary groups in the police bureaucracy
form around a community of shared experience and proximity.
Secrecy, solidarity, and social isolation are the
major police norms
Quinn describes as, “ the singularly most powerful influence on police behavior in the world”
The Code of Silence
( 1) how police officers corrupt other police officers, ( 2) the sources of temptation, and ( 3) whether the payoffs are regular ( e. g., the pad) or a one- time affair.
Police Corruption and Internal Norms
• Police respect citizens’ personal rights and autonomy through morally respectable laws.
• Police officers help people without harming others.
• The middle way brings mutual respect between citizens and police.
• There is police trusteeship over police powers and care for the community.
• Honesty is a key value of police integrity.
Positive Police Ethics In his article on police ethics in Britain and the European Union, Peter Neyroud states the following principles
theory of ideal types, introduced into social science by
Wilson’s ( 1968 ) styles of policing described as watchman, legalistic, and service, are perhaps the most widely known among police administrators.
more minorities, college- educated officers, and female officers, along with community policing, “ may have eroded
the monolithic police culture.”
The most important variables predicting ______ are lower economic class and race demeanor, as well as whether the victim wishes to have an arrest made.
police behavior in the field
She received degrees from the University of Maryland, graduated from the FBI National Academy, and has served in her department for more than 20 years. Recently, she received national recognition for her work on reducing gun violence and motor vehicle theft. She was also a founding member of the National Association of Women Law Enforcement Executives ( NAWLEE) .
Chief Mary Ann Viverette of the Gaithersburg, Maryland
1. A number of years of hiding the officer’s sexual orientation
2. Coming out
3. Expecting the very worst
4. Relief that the very worst had not happened
5. Finally a return to normal
Greg Miraglia, a law enforcement training director at the Napa Valley College in California, published a book of personal stories including his own on being a gay police officer. The biographies presented included those of police chiefs, supervisors, and officers from across the country. All of the stories had the following theme:
• Training and education
proactive leadership, five essential areas of competence
1. Rational grounds , which rest on a belief in the “ legality” of patterns of normative rules and the right of those elevated to authority under such rules to issue commands ( legal authority)
2. Traditional grounds , which rest on an established belief in the sanctity of immemorial traditions and the legitimacy of the status of those exercising authority under them ( traditional authority)
3. Charismatic grounds , which rest on devotion to the specific and exceptional sanctity, hero-ism, or exemplary character of an individual person ( charismatic authority)
Max Weber’s concept of charismatic authority
with its reliance on personal relationships, creates inconsistent policies based on personal whims and often breaks down.
_______, however, is basically a bureaucratic society based on rational legal authority .
Modern, organized society
A ________ is one who also has a high degree of intelligence. He or she must be able to understand theoretical concepts as they relate to the job and be able to create abstract plans and operationalize these plans. This involves a high degree of abstract manipulation of data and the ability to comprehend and make the most use of the computer age.
talented police leader
An _______ is one who has gained a wide range of leadership talents.
experienced police leader
There is general agreement that ________ need training to both obtain and refine leadership skills especially in such areas as emerging technology, counter- terrorism, budgeting, and planning. This review was updated to include the skills needed to address both community policing and homeland security activities.
• Police chief as leader
• Motivation of personnel
• Personnel administration
• Strategic and short- term planning
• Marketing services to the community through traditional and electronic means
• Emergency command situations
• Legal issues involving operations and personnel administration
• Planning for and upgrading police technology
The specific management skills based on recent deliberations on executive training are as follows:
The main idea behind _______ is that all members of an organization are leaders.
*Commitment to shared goals and values.
*Recognition of the different styles of leadership.
*Focus on the individual and the organization.
dispersed leadership is based on the following concepts
What differentiates this program from others is the need for leadership to be taught at all phases of a person’s career. For this program, assessment instruments are used to gauge a person’s strengths and weaknesses. The training course is presented to a cross section of personnel of about 24– 28 persons with assessors assigned to 6 students.
(This relates to the Leadership in Police Organizations developed by IACP)
three business relationship types have developed in many organizations: takers, givers, and matchers.
Leadership and Giving
1. Be proactive.
2. Begin with the end in mind.
3. Put first things first.
4. Think win- win.
5. Seek first to understand and then to be understood. 6. Synergize.
7. Sharpen the saw.
Leadership development is based on the “ Maturity Continuum,” which consists of the following seven habits:
This relates to Stephen Covey's Seven Habits book
1. Be calm.
3. Take care of your people.
4. Get back to business as soon as possible.
5. Maintain critical communications.
6. Have an incident command plan.
7. Be prepared to retreat.
8. Deal with postevent stress and physical conditions.
Managing in Chaos
1. Cyber crime complaints are increasing, but many smaller police departments still do not have the most basic application of computer technology.
2. Collaboration is often difficult between intradepartmental units because of power and turf wars. 3. There appears to be increased sharing of information between departments and districts by the development of localized mobile radio district and crime/ suspect networks.
4. The patrol car has become the digital office; the patrol officer can run data checks, match suspect information, complete reports in final form, and process a prisoner, all in the front seat of a patrol car.
5. Through Compstat and other forms of crime and police- service analysis, police managers are being held accountable for crime trends and service calls in their area.
Digital Nervous System
includes “ being able to detect and have insight about people’s feeling, motives and concerns”
Self- Awareness Emotional awareness, accurate self- assessment, self- confidence Self- Regulation Self- control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, innovation Motivation Achievement, commitment, initiative, optimism Empathy
Emotional Intelligence (Goleman gave these valuable insights for an emotional competence framework and analytic categories)
An important component in TQM is ________ , which is defined as “ the continuous process of measuring our products, services, and practices against our toughest competitor, or those recognized as world leaders and to identify areas that need improvement”
_______is the fundamental rethinking and basic redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvement in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. In comparison to TQM, involves a radical review of the entire organizational structure, while TQM programs exist within the framework of existing organizational structure.
1. Why do we do what we do?
2. Can we disregard all existing structure and procedures and invent new ways of accomplishing work?
3. Do we need dramatic improvement? Should we blow up the old and replace it with some-thing new?
4. What is the range of activities that creates output that is of value to the customer?
Hammer and Champy present the following questions when a company or an organizational unit is considering reengineering:
________ are not tied to the idea of centralized control.
Companies that have undertaken reengineering
_______ means that the company will produce more with fewer departments and levels of control, which indeed results in reduced organizational structures.
successful administration appears to rest on three basic skills, which we will call technical, human, and conceptual.
Kat'z Three Skills
“ involves specialized knowledge, analytical ability within that speciality, and facility in the use of the tools and techniques of the specific discipline.” This is the skill most easily trained for.
“ the executive’s ability to work effectively as a group member and to build cooperative effort within the team he leads.”...... means that the police executive is sensitive to other people’s feelings and is aware of his or her own feelings. This skill involves ( 1) tolerance of ambiguity and ( 2) empathy.
is in terms of an organizing and integrating function, “ coordinating and integrating all the activities and interests of the organization toward a common objective” This is not meant to be simply an intellectual process, as Katz considers such skills to include “ an ability to translate knowledge into action.”
Katz's approach to conceptual skill
Police managers with _________ are able to see their relationship to the rest of the organization of the department and understand how their orders and policy will affect the various structural relationships within the department.
1. Security needs
2. Social needs
3. Importance, self- esteem needs
4. Autonomy needs
5. Self- actualization needs
Maslow's Hieracrchy of Needs
a. The feeling of security in the position
a. The opportunity to give help to other people
b. The opportunity to develop close friendships
a. The feeling of importance from being in the position
b. The importance of the position inside the agency ( i. e., the regard received from others in the police agency) c. The importance of the position outside the agency ( i. e., the regard and esteem received from others who are not members of the police agency)
Importance, self- esteem needs
a. The authority connected with the position
b. The opportunity for independent thought and action
c. The opportunity for participation in the meeting of agency goals
d. The opportunity for participation in the determination of methods and procedures
a. The opportunity for personal growth and development in the police management position
b. The feeling of self- fulfillment ( i. e., the feeling of being able to use one’s own unique capabilities, realizing one’s potentialities)
c. The feeling of worthwhile accomplishment
Self- actualization needs
( 1) How much of the characteristic was connected with your police management position?
( 2) How much of the characteristic do you think should be connected with your police management position?
( 3) How important is this characteristic to you? It is obvious that if the manager is to operate successfully, this hierarchy of needs must be satisfied.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs:
To obtain a full range of answers concerning the police executive’s feelings about his or her position in terms of fulfilling his or her needs, three rating questions are recommended:
• Being able to attain work related goals
• Recognition by the organization for doing a job well
• Having a great desire to perform work related duties
• Having responsibility for getting tasks completed
• Being able to advance to higher levels in the organization
• Having a sense of professional growth related to the job.
Herzberg Hygiene Factors:
Herzberg found that the following “ events” reported by employees led to extreme satisfaction on the job and a willingness to increase performance:
*speaks to the need for management to provide the means for people to achieve both personal goals, which in turn, would lead to the attainment of organizational goals.
*employees will, in fact, accept responsibility and often present creativity in addressing organizational issues.
the humanistic approach for terms of personnel management skills, and the use of high technology for day- to- day business.
1. There is a guarantee of lifetime career and employment in the agency.
2. One’s career develops with different jobs throughout the agency rather than being limited to one specialization.
3. Decisions are developed relying on a high- technology total information system.
4. Management is characterized by the use of modern information and accounting systems, formal planning, management by objectives, and formal means of control of the system by management.
5. Decision making is initially consensual and democratic, where employees take a great deal of time agreeing to changes and talking about it. When a decision is made by top management, everyone is expected to go along with it and carry out the new decision.
Theory Z (One approach to the use of both high touch and high technology)
1. Protecting life and property 2. Preserving the peace 3. Preventing criminality 4. Apprehending criminals
The purposes that we have traditionally accepted to be the main thrust of managing a police agency are as follows...they have a major defect, they have become reactive.
• Overtime costs may be funded from external sources that are charged for the costs of offi-cers’ services. For example, officers assigned to a block party may be compensated by the municipality, which then charges the coordinators of the event. • Some personnel positions are generated by grant funding ( called “ soft money” lines). These positions are intact only for the duration of the grant. This was often the case with community policing personnel hired by community policing grants in the late 1990s. The costs of these officers were then assumed by the local police departments at the end of the grants. • The number of personnel who are defined in an organizational chart is different from the number of personnel available for and on duty. Often staff are assigned to drug task forces, major training programs, and other areas. In some instances, an officer is out on long- term disability because of an on- the- job injury, and others may be suspended for misconduct. • As discussed in Chapter 12 on recruitment and selection, some of the budget should cover the cost and time for recruitment and selection, training, health and retirement benefits, and general officer turnover.
Analyzing the Costs of Policing
police managers also need to go beyond the traditional purposes of policing to the following areas of responsibility: ( 1) performance, ( 2) preparedness, and ( 3) progressiveness.
REALITY- BASED PROACTIVE PURPOSES OF POLICE ORGANIZATIONS
*measures need to be created in terms of the daily activity of both the line officer and the police manager. Criteria need to be developed to evaluate effectively and to reward positive, proactive police activity.
*Feedback mechanisms must be developed to monitor the performance of line officers and police managers and to evaluate their activities so as to reward appropriate delivery of police services to the community. The focus is on measures of individuals in official positions and measures of organizational effectiveness.
*speaks to the needs of short- range as well as long- range planning and entails the relation of the police agency to other community and government organizations, such as social welfare and health agencies. Police organizations have normally planned only in terms of police
*rather than the whole human service group of agencies. Today, all personnel should be trained to handle future problems. It entails the need for better communication among all agencies. Time and resources need to be developed so that this type of thinking permeates the entire police organization.
is a basic management- for- change concept in which leaders are flexible and tolerant of ambiguity and are willing to institute new ideas because they may work. Such leaders do not feel threatened by such changes. The opposite of this type is the hierarchically oriented administrator who seeks closure and places limitations on his staff ’ s ideas.
( 1) respond , ( 2) regulate , ( 3) restrain , ( 4) recover , ( 5) repress , and ( 6) reinforce
Management Principles (To accomplish these purposes, management guidelines are needed. The following six princi-ples allow for both the traditional reactive approach and the aggressive proactive approach)
These are traditionally noncriminal police activities, and regulations are necessary to prevent crises in our communities. This area of policing provides an excellent opportunity to improve relations with community members, countering the police image as a repressive, restrictive force demanding compliance with rules, ordinances, and so on.
This represents one of the traditional purposes for police: the apprehension of criminals. It should also include restraint of mentally ill people and the prevention of one citizen from annoying or doing damage to another.
There are two important elements necessary for a crime to take place. First, the individual must have the desire to commit the crime; second, the opportunity must present itself for the satisfaction of this desire. Police have traditionally attempted to prevent crime by reducing the opportunity of the individual to commit the crime.
Approach As discussed by Jones......is “ designed to induce people to behave in predictable, accountable ways”. In these structures, which in theory apply to both the military and police organizations, there is close supervision, much accountability, and information flows up and down the organization. Unity of action is accomplished by specialized work assigned and great coordination.
*uses bodies to fill boxes in an organization chart.
*view the organization is terms of work groups, delegation of authority to many levels of the organization, and much face- to- face contact. This definition emphasizes the people who make up an organization and through whom all work is done............
*is used in most professional organizations, where a particular skill must be developed at a particular level with the exact knowledge needed to fill a position. This is often the norm for many technical groups whereby workers are connected via the Internet.
Organic or Humanist Approach
*This activity specifies goals and objectives in cooperation with other public agencies.
*Cooperating with other public agencies is a requisite.
*deals with the creation of the formal structure of the police organization, the work of the enterprise.
*The goal is to coordinate all the organizational units to perform most efficiently to meet the purposes of the organization.
*The organization itself becomes the total responsibility of the manager and reflects the organizational ability of the top- management team.
*Modern business principles are combined with knowledge of public administration and modern police activities.
*The key to success is to create an organizational structure in which the right person does the right job at the highest efficiency with the correct level of personal and organizational morale.
*function of management covers such aspects of the organization as hiring, firing, and training, as well as assigning personnel to specific tasks and roles.
*There is also a concern with establishing satisfactory working conditions, including safe and appropriate physical facilities.
*Included also is the need to provide weapons to officers who need to carry out the job and to keep those weapons in functional order.
* includes developing job descriptions. Each job should be clearly defined and filled by a qualified employee. Qualified means that the employee has the necessary skills, background, and training to accomplish the tasks that the job description calls for.
Every attempt should be made to match each employee to a job where he or she is • Satisfied • Qualified • Gratified
*the police manager needs to ( 1) act as the overall leader of the organization and ( 2) direct the day- to- day activities of the enterprise.
*As leader of the police organization, the manager has to make decisions and issue orders. Using modern management principles, this is normally a team process in which the leader receives information and advice from the top- management team. The information that is obtained through this consultative process should lead to a firm decision.
*A police manager using this approach should seek advice from local community leaders as well as from top- management staff and experts in law enforcement. Then, once a decision has been made, the team is expected to carry out daily the specified directions and procedures.
is designed to bring about agreement on specific courses of action to solve specific problems. Typical problems include legal ramifications of policy decisions and deciding who is going to be in charge in cases involving overlapping jurisdictions.
entails keeping the flow of information going up, down, and across the organization.
• Reporting • Evaluation • Services • Planning • Ethics • Control • Teaching
RESPECT Approach to Supervision
supervisor’s basic responsibility is to continuously inspect and evaluate the officers in terms of their appearance, use of equipment, habits, and performance. Habit refers to behavior, mannerisms, use of language, and professional attitude; performance refers to the knowledge of the job and the ability to do the job in terms of professional qualifications. Dress and demeanor are also part of this evaluation and inspection process. Even “ unmeasurables,” such as empathy and the ability to deal with people,
one of the supervisor’s first responsibilities is to maintain the quality of the delivery of services to the citizens. This is done by making community relations activities part of the evaluation of each officer.
*refers to both long- and short- range planning and implementation.
*A major rule in management communication is that the closer you are to your data, the more accurate your knowledge of the data is.
*is defined as standards of conduct and moral judgment applied to everyday operations.
*Morale is also determined by management that has sympathetic knowledge of the problems of line personnel.
*Effective management must control both personnel and material, providing guid-ance and instilling a sense of responsibility. With increasingly scarce resources available to public agencies, their efficient use will be a paramount measure of management success in the future.
*Knowledge and effective use of personnel are critical because 70– 90 percent of the average police budget is devoted to personnel. Personnel hours are money.
The supervisor is concerned with personnel reaching their highest potential.
( 1) line functions, ( 2) staff/ administrative functions, and ( 3) auxiliary/ service functions.
( 1) patrol, ( 2) traffic, ( 3) investigation ( detectives), ( 4) vice, and ( 5) juvenile.
*Inspections/ Internal Affairs
*Research and planning
Staff/ Administrative Units
These are more "thinking and planning" units...looking at papers
the management team normally does not need daily input from these units.
*Property clerk’s office
Auxiliary/ Service Units
These are more hands on type units...pressing buttons
1. Payroll 2. Budget. 3. Purchasing. 4. Vehicle maintenance5. Annual report. 6. Inventory. 7. Personnel 8. Training records. 9. Scheduling of personnel. 10. Community relations.
following items comprise the management information sys-tem, which becomes the lifeblood of the department for accountability and deployment and is the living record in dealing with crime and public safety services
Vacant house checks
Mug- shot images
Computer crime mapping
Productivity can be increased throughout the department by using data processing, at least in the following areas:
* enhances calls for service from the public and the dispatching of police cars and personnel. *system verifies addresses, determines the beat of incidents, and gives a case number and priority number to each call. Some systems even report “ dangerous histories.” The computer automatically records all calls and can recommend to the dispatcher a choice of units to dispatch to the call. The time of dispatch is recorded as well as time on the scene and time the unit is free. *provides real- time monitoring of vehicle status and a continuously updated incident file; allows supervisors to monitor the incident status; and provides telephone, radio, and digital activity statistics. The system can also generate crime statistics reports, flag deviations and trends, automatically generate required data for resource allocation models, and provide online information for line supervisors, administrators, and officers.
Computer- Aided Dispatch ( CAD)
1. Victim identification 2. Patrol planning 3. Hot spot identification 4. Notification to emergency fire and medical services 5. Improved officer safety through driver and vehicle identification 6. Crime mapping for service call responses 7. Access to multiple data resources, including stolen cars, outstanding warrants, and other calls to the same location 8. Verification of all data 9. Improved service through the use of information technology 10. Rapid field report writing
CAD, combined with information laptop technology and computer mapping, can supply a great deal of data and services to officers in their patrol cars. Its uses in technologically smart departments include the following:
.....can be done through the development of rules to control and limit incident- driven dispatching.
Ensuring that a department is a proactive data analysis– driven department rather than a reactive incident- driven department
.......whereby a number of law enforcement agencies cooperate in the creation of a common communication network......decreases operating costs, especially personnel and total equipment and installation costs. Jurisdictions are able to afford computer- assisted communication systems that would otherwise be out of reach of their budgets....... municipalities have also been able to afford technologies such as CAD. This approach can also overcome channel congestion problems, coordinate police actions during emergencies, and provide a regional base for attracting outside funding.
regional communication system ( RCS)
1. Enhancing the development of state, county, and metropolitan computerized criminal jus-tice information systems, thereby making it more readily available to the officer on the street 2. Establishing uniformity of coding standards for the exchange of criminal justice information 3. Increasing the probability of criminal detection by providing law enforcement with timely and accurate information necessary to combat today’s highly mobile criminal 4. Improving the overall crime solution rate
NCIC has accomplished the following goals
1. Establish national distribution system for data sets stored by states instead of keeping a central database 2. Establish the National Fingerprint File, which will allow electronic transmittal and identification of fingerprints 3. Establish the Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Violent Felon File, which will create files of people who are suspected terrorists or of interest to law enforcement officials
NCIC 2000. The purposes of the enhancements are the following:
is portable and has full- color video, two- way audio, and officer location and monitors and transmits vital signs. A smart card with storage capacity that turns itself off with tampering will provide secure identification in the size of a credit card. People can be identified with computerized signatures provided by fingerprints, DNA, and voiceprint.
The Remote Control Information System ( RCIS)
• Demographic data from the Census Bureau • Property tax agencies for location, condition, and paid or unpaid property taxes • Traffic corridor maps, with number of cars using these corridors • Local police statistics and Uniform Crime Reports • Local crime and victimization surveys • Court and community corrections files supplying residence and work addresses of parolees, probationers, and court- processed criminals • Licensing units and public health data
Crime mapping superimposes computer- generated data on a city street grid or other map. Data sets are taken from various public agencies, such as
1. Altering and destroying the contents of electronic files and computer systems 2. Destroying and disrupting hardware, operating platforms, and programs
Cyberattacks and cyberterror come in the following main forms
1. Review of benchmarks and actual applications. 2. Vendor background checks. 3. Budget costs and value added to services. 4. Service costs and maintenance. 5. Choice of in- house or external vendor. 6. Creating in- house review and operations teams. 7. Related to item 6 is policy creation. 8. What is the long- term economic impact?
THE ROLE OF THE CHIEF IN TECHNOLOGY As we stated before, technology is viewed as a tool for helping in operational decision making, planning, and delivering services. Thus, before a new technology is adopted, technology decision making should consider the following:
( 1) reduce administration, preventive patrol, and calls for assistance and ( 2) add to time spent on directed patrol and crime analysis related to directed patrol.
RETHINKING THE TRADITIONAL MODEL
• Detecting crime • Apprehending criminal offenders • Recovering stolen property • Maintaining a sense of public security and confidence in the police for the community • Satisfying public demands for noncriminal services
These are the objectives of preventive patrol
can be defined as the allocation of patrol services in a planned and rational manner.
police personnel watch and follow individuals who are suspected of committing offenses with frequency ( e. g., burglary, robbery, drugs, and organized crime).
officers— either physically or by use of electronic equipment— are assigned to a likely target area. Crimes in progress are frequently interrupted.
is used either against specific criminals or in a wide area with a variety of targets. Some jurisdictions even go so far as to station video cameras on certain high- crime street corners.
General area surveillance
received considerable attention by criminal justice educators, planners, and practitioners. It was seen as a possible solution to the major problems faced by many American police departments: ( 1) poor police– community relations, ( 2) duplication of effort, ( 3) the rise of crime, and ( 4) the increasing costs of police budgets.
involves decentralizing the existing police organizational structure and reorganizing services into specific subunits. These subunits are usually based on geographic, ethnic, and other socioeconomic boundaries found in particular communities.
1. The police services rendered by the team become more personal to the community, and in return the relations between the police and the community are improved. 2. It provides a flexible structure for its members in that innovation is made possible and professionalism is increased through the development of shared knowledge and peer review. 3. Patrol and investigatory functions are merged into one task, thus eliminating the social barriers of communication and status conflict between uniformed and plainclothes personnel. 4. A reduction is attained in the chain of command in that decision making is done by super-visors and operating personnel. 5. Each member of the team is given a chance to utilize discretion and enhance personal skills. As a result, greater work satisfaction is expected.
Positive Aspects of Team Policing The positive aspects of team policing are as follows:
is often confused with tactical patrol techniques.
deals with selective law enforcement for a specific problem in the area. Examples of this type of enforcement are robberies, murders, muggings, and purse snatchings occurring in a routine manner, in a specific geographic area.
• Deployment of community policing, including giving more authority to remote unit supervisors; human service/ communication training for officers, supervisors, and police managers • Proactive planning and intelligence to anticipate planned and unplanned events, including critical incidents and intelligence and hot spot management; centralized rapid- response teams with maximum equipment and human relations experts organized for instant deployment • Greater interactions with private police, auxiliary police, and community volunteers • Major police executives who are highly educated and professionally trained and move from one major police department to another— whether public or private— throughout the country
The proactive community police response is a series of strategies that includes cost-effective concentration of administration, human resources, laboratory services, corruption and police brutality intervention, and training services for police departments. It includes the following:
1. Active competition exists between police organizations for calls, resources, and, at times, personnel. 2. De facto spheres of influence are arranged by formal and informal agreements between agencies. For example, while the state police have statewide jurisdiction, many will normally not answer calls in a village that has a police department; the village police, in the same light, will not go outside municipal limits except in pursuit of an offender. 3. Informal relationships, usually based on how well certain officers or agency heads get along, determine the distribution of intelligence information, assistance to other departments during emergencies, and the success or failure of interagency projects.
there exist these organizational realities in American policing today:
as when two or more departments are disbanded and merged into an area or county metropolitan police department. Departments that have undergone this process include those in Nassau and Suffolk Counties in New York; Riley County, Kentucky; Jacksonville, Florida; Charlotte- Mecklenburg, North Carolina; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Toronto, Ontario.
1. Statutory provisions related to contract agreements 2. Formulas to be used in charging for such services as patrol, traffic, criminal investigations, and so on 3. Planning and resolving various issues that come with normal policing ( e. g., interruption of services, liability, physical plant needs, personnel requirements) 4. Determining performance criteria for continuance of the contract ( e. g., lower crime rate, citizen satisfaction with services)
Many communities in the United States contract for police services from another municipality. The basic considerations in determining contractual services are the following:
• City to city. Police service is provided by one city to another. • County to city or county to region. Perhaps the most common contractual arrangement in the United States occurs when a county sheriff or police department provides police services to municipalities in the county on a shared- expense or contributory- expense arrangement. • Resident officer program. Small towns that do not have a police department may contract for one or more full- time police officers from the state police or county sheriff ’ s department. Expenses paid for these officers by the township are usually one- half the total cost of each person. In some cases, the officers receive a bonus if they reside in the contractual area.
According to the National Sheriff ’ s Association, there are the following types of contractual arrangements:
Cross Deputization/ Mutual Enforcement Zone/ Overlapping Jurisdictions
In 2003, the International Association of Chiefs of Police ( IACP) undertook a review of consolidation case studies and focused on consolidation efforts in the cities of Sparta and Tomah, Wisconsin, and the City of Belvedere and the County of Boone, Illinois. From this review, the following consolidation models were presented:
units such as dispatching or crime scene analysis being combined for two or more agencies.
— sworn officers are pooled so that personnel from one department can make arrests and provide backup in another adjacent jurisdiction. This often occurs with campus police departments that have a large student population living off- campus.
Cross Deputization/ Mutual Enforcement Zone/ Overlapping Jurisdictions
— fire, police, and emergency medical services are combined under one agency. This public safety model was a rage in the early 1970s when some newly created jurisdictions were set up in the west and southwest of the United States.
— two or more agencies combine their police operations.
— a number of agencies are combined into a new police regional entity based on geography.
— two or more agencies combine into one large agency for a major metropolitan area. This is what occurred in Toronto, Ontario, and Las Vegas, Nevada.
— the entire governments of two or more municipalities are combined into one new political unit.
1. Who will oversee the new department? 2. How will the chief and other command personnel be chosen? 3. What will be the initial and long- term operating costs? 4. How will officers from the “ old” departments be merged and deployed in the new agency configurations? Will there be new or continued special units? 5. How will citizen involvement and review be achieved? 6. How will the new department be evaluated in terms of providing services and reducing crime?
One of the main findings of the IACP study is the need to gauge community opinion and to air the strengths and weaknesses of consolidation. A “ focus group approach” was created whereby community members can meet and address the following questions:
are the costs for pensions and medical care.
What may drive the move for consolidation or shared services in many communities (At this time, these costs account for about 30 percent or more in addition to the regular salary.)
1. Street and map response time grid 2. Modus operandi grid related to demographic characteristics and time of crime commitment 3. Time, place, and nature of crimes shown by number and color for easy identification, with listings of burglaries, robberies, traffic deaths, juvenile crimes, and other grids available at the punch of a button 4. Demographic vehicles: density, distribution, and vital statistics of population 5. Trend- analysis grids for traffic control, civilian disasters, and energy blackouts available for planners if a disaster or traffic stoppage occurred 6. All this available on encrypted, handheld palm computers
Computerized crime analysis also permits this map to be keyed to show a great variety of characteristics to facilitate planning. Some of these are the following:
1. Associate’s or bachelor’s degree being demanded of all recruits. 2. Men and women being assigned to all facets of the police mission and promoted to specialty units and command and supervisory positions— all on an equal basis. 3. The police recruit selection process placing less emphasis on pencil- and- paper tests and more emphasis on testing by role- play, interview, aptitude, and other assessment- center methods.
Personnel Standards Given the current trends in positive personnel selection, it is possible that we may see the following personnel standards in the future:
• Is 45– 52 years of age • Has worked through the ranks of a department • Has had little experience in either public or private administration prior to appointment or selection as chief and has training consisting of some police academy seminars and learning by the ropes, with formal education limited to high school, augmented by courses taken at the local community college, or an associate’s degree • Was selected as chief by written civil service examination, political appointment, or election
it can be said that the “ typical police chief ” of today has the following characteristics:
• A master’s degree in police administration or a related field • Three years of experience in police planning, patrol, or investigations • Successful completion of the state- certified training academy for police patrol officers and supervisors, with some states issuing licenses that have to be renewed on a timely basis
Requirements for future hiring (of police managers) might be the following:
is that police management is always in charge of technology. Technology should never be allowed to drive police management policy.
The first principle of the proactive management model
This means that all justifiable policies and procedures will be computer based.
Police management in the twenty- first century will be both data driven and based on the rapid communication of information.
is a data- driven department, with its human side being provided by community policing. This department ( 1) lowers crime through good management and the proactive use of technology and ( 2) has the community set the agenda for the police department.
A proactive department
The major proactive police management and technology tools to bring about this successful approach involve ______
is the use of the best available research on the outcomes of police work to implement guidelines and evaluate agencies, units and officers . . . . uses research to guide practice and evaluate practitioners.”
Evidence- based policing
Part of strategic planning includes ________, which is a comprehensive review of assets that could be damaged, stolen, or lost and countermeasures to prevent major occurrences ( Curtis and McBride, 2005 ).
• Unlawful search of property • Discrimination • Retaliatory discharge • Freedom of speech • Union or political activity • Discipline or termination action • Personal appearance or dress code • Unfair labor practice • Compensation for on- the- job injury
Reasons for filing Tort actions
1. Use of force 2. Auto pursuit 3. Arrest/ search
4. Employee drug test 5. Hiring and promotion
6. Discrimination based on race, sex, or age
7. Record keeping and privacy 8. Jail management
Top 8 litigation issues
According to Robert J. Meadows ( 1999 : 156), based on a survey of police chiefs of 20 cities with over 100,000 in population
A major example of an operational plan, although many police chief executives do not recognize it as such.
The duty manual
Another major example of an operational plan and one that dominates a department . The overwhelming majority of resources in a police agency are devoted to patrol. Table 14- 2 shows the general trends that have occurred through a comparison of traditional and recent plans. Items in the traditional categories really require no planning; the chief simply divides the patrol force into three shifts and maps out patrol zones based on the geography of the municipality and some personal rule of thumb. Plans reviewed by Levine and McEwen ( 1985 : 9) involve obtaining activity data. Patrol personnel and vehicles are allocated according to calls for service, which include both service and crime incident responses.
2. Patrol planning.
1. The total calls for service for each tour of duty are obtained for one year ( 12 months). 2. The 12- month total is multiplied by the average time required to respond to a call for service and to complete the preliminary investigation. This provides the number of hours per year spent in handling calls for service. Previous studies show that the average time required to investigate adequately at the preliminary level by members of a patrol force is 45 minutes ( 0.75 hour). Note that we are focusing on patrol response and not follow- up investigations by detectives as a major crime will take hundreds of hours before it is “ cleared.” 3. The hours per year in calls for service are multiplied by 3. This is a “ buffer” factor to account for the time spent on preventive patrol, inspectional services, vehicle servicing, and personal needs. This gives total patrol hours. 4. The total hours are divided by 2,920, the number of hours necessary to staff one post on one eight- hour shift for one year ( 8 hours × 365 = 2,920). The quotient equals the mini-mum number of patrol posts needed for the particular tour of duty.
PATROL STAFFING MODEL There are a number of patrol planning models that are used in the United States. One developed by the International Association of Chiefs of Police involves measuring calls for service to determine the number of patrol posts and staff needed to fill these posts. This is done according to the following steps ( McDougall, 1992 ):
1. Tactical plans.
2. Emergency plans.
There are two major types of contingency plans:
are formulated based on what is expected to take place. A recurrent event is one that is expected to happen again; however, the time and place of the event may not be known.
made for mundane events ( parades, political rallies) as well as for natural disasters ( blizzards, floods).
has been considered by some police managers as a type of tactical plan for unusual occurrences and crisis situations.
are the response by local, state, and federal authorities to natural disasters, riots, civilian disorders, terrorism, and large events that disrupt the normal flow of commerce and life in a community or region.
1. Crisis intervention.
2. Community emergency.
3. Regional emergency
4. Major emergency.
To develop a reasonable plan for emergency and crisis management, departments, in concert with other agencies, should focus on overall planning efforts to four specific crisis or emergency levels:
Step 1: Establish a Planning Team Form the team Establish authority from the chief executive Issue a mission statement Establish a schedule and budget
Step 2: Analyze Capabilities and Hazards Where do you stand right now? Review internal plans and policies Meet with all “ stakeholders” and agencies: fire, EMS, Haz- mat Identify codes and regulations Identify critical services and operations Identify resources and capabilities Conduct a hazard analysis List potential emergencies ( both natural and human made) Estimate probability Assess the potential human impact Assess the potential property and business impact Assess the potential business impact Assess internal and external resources Address terrorist situations
Step 3: Develop the Plan List the plan components Executive summary Emergency management team identification Emergency response assignments and call- up Functional annexes for operational responses Map out the development process Identify challenges, and prioritize activities Write the plan Establish a training schedule Continue to coordinate with outside organizations Review, conduct training, and test the plan
Step 4: Implement the Plan Integrate the plan into agency operations, and conduct training Distribute the plan Conduct training activities Evaluate and modify the plan
An emergency affects a state or an entire region, such as storms, nuclear accidents, and civil disturbances. A planning model developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA) calls for the following planning strategy for dealing with these emergencies ( FEMA, 2003 ):
Command and Management—
Management and Maintenance—
The core of NIMS centers on the following functions
1. Command. The command function for an incident may consist of one person who is the incident commander and operates from a command post. Unified command occurs when there are different agencies responding to an event. The goal here is to overcome duplication of effort, share information, and develop a common set of goals to deal with an incident. Each agency head will be located in the command post. In major events that cross state boundaries, there may be an area commander who oversees separate commands by state or region. Included in the command function are the public information officer ( PIO), a safety officer, and a liaison officer to deal with secondary agencies. In most cases, the PIO con-ducts news briefings and also reports to the command post any questions and information regarding the incident. The safety officer basically sits on the sidelines and evaluates how the event is going and whether a course of action will endanger personnel. For example, in a hazardous condition, various chemicals may be present, and the safety officer ensures that operations personnel have the correct equipment.
2. Operations. This area coordinates first responders to deal with a situation and save lives and property. The operations section follows a deployment model because in a wide- area emergency, various branches may have to be established because of geographic conditions ( see Figure 14- 2 ).
3. Planning. This section presents information and intelligence gained from any sources. Planning functions for NIMS include obtaining information on the situation, possible resources, and technical support and preparing documentation for later evaluation. Planning may also include air operations, vehicle traffic, evacuation of civilians, waste management, decontamination, and investigative and evidence recovery.
4. Logistics. This section is responsible for locating and transporting personnel, communications, and medical and safety equipment.
5. Finance and administration. This section is often overlooked but is terribly important. This group keeps cost estimates and records related to any fiscal expenditure. It also keeps documentation for eventual billing purposes for federal or state aid or private recovery efforts. For example, FEMA will compensate agencies for personnel and equipment costs in a major disaster; however, the agency requires a detailed expenditures report as part of the application.
6. Information and intelligence. This function has been added to the model since March 2004. As discussed in Chapter 8 , intelligence is the process of obtaining various bits of information and making some sense of them. Depending on the nature of the incident, information and intelligence may be assigned to planning or directly to command.
An important factor for NIMS is the ICS, which consists of the following components:
1. Develop a formal agreement to collaborate— preferably a written document that commits each group to the partnership. 2. Describe the specific activities in the agreements that each party in the network will undertake. 3. Sooner or later involve every important agency and facility that provides emergency services to the target population. 4. Make sure that the arrangements benefit every participant.
. It makes sense for police to use the human service agency net-work when it is available. However, networking cannot be done at random. Police managers need to do the following ( Finn and Sullivan, 1987 : 6):
to disrupt a community and implant fear in order to advance a political, social, or religious agenda. radical ethnic, religious, or political ideologues. Examples are anarchists, Marxists, racist hate groups, anti- Semitic groups, ethnic and tribal groups, extreme nationalists, ecoterrorists, political extremists, and religious fanatics.
The object of terrorism
1. Preventing terrorist acts through planning, investigation, and the gathering and sharing of local, regional, and national intelligence
2. Handling terrorist acts through cooperation with and coordination of local, regional, and national agencies with a planned agenda of activity
3. Dealing with the aftermath of a terrorist act, including the coordination of posttrauma human service, physical reconstruction, and the uplift of the community in an integrated effort
4. Learning from previous terrorist acts and working with community groups to prevent another— the essence of the proactive approach
Proactive police departments need to deal with terrorism in four specific stages
1. Domestic groups. The American terrorist groups are small in number but occasionally extremely violent in behavior. The 400- lb bomb that destroyed the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 was set off by members of the Michigan Militia. Domestic militia and hate groups have to be monitored by state and local police agencies.
2. Overseas political/ religious groups. At the moment, the overseas terrorist groups that affect the United States are mainly anti- American Muslim fundamentalists with international support. The 1993 and September 11, 2001, bombings of the World Trade Center in New York City are the most dramatic examples of their actions. Domestic concerns are heavily focused on Islamic splinter groups and “ lone wolves,” or individuals acting on their own accord after being inspired by others or events.
For American law enforcement, terrorist groups fall into two main categories
1. National authorities must share terrorism intelligence with state and local police agencies whenever there is a local credible threat.
2. Local police must be given the authority to deal with foreign- based terrorist threats within their jurisdiction.
3. An office of intelligence must be created in every major police agency.
4. Proactive police defensive and offensive coordination and plans for terrorist attacks have to be in place, and private and public agencies should be at the same or better level as civil defense in time of war.
. Proactive Policies for Combating Terrorism
1. The malfunction of air traffic control equipment
2. The circulation of poisonous gas through the heating and air- conditioning systems of a large office complex
3. Interruption in 911 telephone communications
4. Electrical blackouts
5. The destruction of power dams, causing major flooding and endangering thousands
6. The disruption of financial markets
Critical Infrastructure Assessment and Protection
The worst- case scenarios being considered are the following
a special adviser to a state governor on counterterrorism immediately following 9/ 11, recommended a “ prevention, detection, response, and recovery” approach when considering a terrorist attack. He is especially concerned with a cyberattack and has set up a cybersecurity task force, which includes experts from federal and state governments, universities, and private corporations and businesses. It is establishing a list of private vendors to call on in case of a cyberattack. Planners are concerned with “ catastrophic loss of life, disruption of essential services, and incapacitation/ destruction of critical infrastructure.”
James K. Kallstrom ( 2002)
: 1. What are the major elements of the infrastructure in the local community? 2. What private and public protection is needed for this infrastructure under various levels of threat? 3. What are the most essential and important targets to the community, and how do we prioritize them? 4. What private and public assets are available to protect this infrastructure, and how do we mobilize these assets?
Risk assessment, the identifying of crucial assets, and priority planning focus scarce resources on the essentials. The questions to be answered in this police emergency planning process are the following:
is also a strong technological innovation because of its “ on- time” data retrieval of crime statistics, its geographic mapping of neighborhood crime data, its use in operational planning, and the results-oriented evaluation of police supervisors. Vincent Henry, who was the major developer and operational planner for
1. Write tickets
2. Hold down overtime
3. Stay out of trouble
4. Respond quickly to radio calls
5. Report police corruption
6. Treat supervisors with deference
7. Reduce crime, disorder, and fear
Goals Officers Considered Most Important to Management
1. Reduce crime, disorder, and fear
2. Make gun arrests
3. Provide police services to those who request them
4. Gain public confidence in police integrity
5. Arrest drug dealers
6. Correct quality- of- life conditions
7. Stay out of trouble
Goals Officers Considered Most Important to Themselves
1. Get guns off the streets. In New York, this included training and resources to investigate and identify gun traffickers.
2. Curb youth violence in the schools and on the streets. Included school safety plans, increased number of youth officers, and having patrol officers return truants to school. Planning data showed a significant relationship between truancy and delinquency.
3. Drive drug dealers out of the city. Increased patrol officer involvement in narcotic investigations, with the focus of the department on more midlevel and high- level drug deals and increased forfeiture of drug dealers’ assets.
4. Break the cycle of domestic violence. Used databases to track violence and to intervene proactively, providing a proarrest policy along with cooperation with social services.
5. Reclaim public spaces. A “ broken windows” quality- of- life approach, using loitering, public nuisance, and noise ordinances. Sound meters were distributed.
6. Reduce autorelated crime. Included sting operations of “ chop shops” that dismantled autos, identification of license plates of stolen cars, and increased training and intelligence gathering.
7. Root out corruption and build integrity. Included the use of local commanders and took internal affairs out of dealing with petty complaints so that its focus would be on major corruption.
8. Reclaim the roads of the city. Established a traffic control unit to plan and analyze reasons for congestion and incidents and increased the response time of personnel.
9. Heighten courtesy, professionalism, and respect. Increased training and set performance goals and measures to evaluate how well the principles were practiced.
10. Bring fugitives to justice.
Ten crime- control and quality- of- life strategies were developed over the years. The following revisions apply those strategies to a more general audience ( Henry, 2002 : 227– 29)
• Accurate and timely intelligence that is clearly communicated to all
• Rapid, concentrated, and synchronized deployment
• Effective tactics and strategies
• Relentless follow- up and assessment
Jack Maple ( 1999 : 246– 47) demonstrated how Compstat works operationally once major planning has taken place. Operations at every level must be guided by the four steps of Compstat:
It creates SOPs for the department, including job descriptions and authority relationships. Specifics, such as procedures concerning the use of deadly force, may be a combination of law and operational procedures created in a standard order by the police agency. However, the list of operational procedures includes virtually every operation of the police agency ( patrol procedure, evidence flow, civil emergencies, lineup procedures, and so on).
the duty manual
Although often codified in it, operational procedures are changed according to condition. Thus, the it is supplemented by both temporary operating procedures ( TOPs) and SOPs. If these two supplementary procedures are in place, they may become part of the it. However, one problem with this type of procedure is in keeping the SOPs and TOPs to a minimum so that the it is a useful document. Another problem is to have the it be comprehensive enough to cover operations but not so bulky that it loses its utility.
the duty manual
1. The supervisor demands sexual consideration in exchange for job benefit.
2. An employee makes unwelcome sexual advances toward another employee in the form of pressure for dates, stalking, love letters, and calls.
3. Activities or behavior by one or more employees creates a hostile work environment for the complainant regardless of the loss of economic or tangible job benefits. These activities might include pranks, jokes, and comments of a sexual nature.
Sexual harassment consists of the following
1. Random testing for all personnel on a routine basis
2. Mandatory testing for all pre-employment applicants 3. Testing for preservice and in- service officers based on reasonable suspicion that the person is using illegal substances. ( Reasonable suspicion may be based on ( 1) internal investigation in response to a complaint; ( 2) observation of behavior at work, such as slurred speech, unsteady gait; or ( 3) long- term work patterns regarding sick time and attendance.)
4. Testing of officers being considered for sensitive assignments, such as narcotics enforcement, helicopter operations, explosives, and special weapons and tactics 5. Voluntary testing by officers to show that they are above reproach
Departments that have drug screening may use one or a combination of the following programs:
• Drug testing if reasonable grounds existed to suspect an officer using drugs ( 87.7 percent) • Drug screening of police applicants ( 76.4 percent) • Regular drug testing of officers during probationary period ( 66 percent) • Random drug testing of officers in “ sensitive” positions ( 64.7 percent)
In 1988, the Police Executive Research Forum surveyed police chiefs around the country. The following are the policies the chiefs favored:
The most common screening procedure used at this time. In this procedure, a urine sample is analyzed for the presence of a single substance or a class of drugs or metabolites by separating the various enzymes. The procedure is inexpensive and, thus, widely used. This type suggests only the presence of a substance; it does not show quantity and level of impairment.
is urine testing by way of the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique ( EMIT)
( 1) providing publications and education about drug awareness, ( 2) requiring notification to the employer by the employee if he or she is arrested for criminal violations occurring in the workplace, ( 3) requiring convicted employees to participate in a drug abuse assistance or rehabilitation program, and ( 4) notifying employees of possible sanctions that might be taken against them by the company.
In 1988, the Federal Drug Free Workplace Act was signed into law. It requires employers with federal con-tracts in excess of $ 25,000 to certify that they will provide a drug- free workplace through the following
1. The officer contract model
2. The union brokerage model .
3. The department contract model .
Contract Police Issues
Albert Reiss Jr. ( 1988 : 9) produced three models of secondary employment that are still useful today.
“( 1) contracts with employers for paid details; ( 2) assigns officers to details; and ( 3) pays the officers from reimbursements by employers.”
Under the department contract model, the police department performs three major functions ( Reiss, 1988 : 11):
( 1) potential conflict of interest, ( 2) threat to the dignity of police as an occupation, and ( 3) “ an unacceptable risk of temporary or disabling injury that would limit their [ the police officer’s] return to regular duty” ( Reiss, 1988 : 11).
The three major issues that restrict employment of the public police are:
• Brief court appearances earning, by contract, three or four hours in overtime • Standbys earning a minimum of three hours of overtime • Overtime of 15– 30 minutes given for roll calls • Having all meetings outside the department charged for overtime
Some examples of excessive labor contract provisions
• Number of overtime minutes • What the overtime was used for • Officers and units performing the overtime work • A daily computerized usage record in a retrievable form
The high cost of overtime needs to be controlled through proactive police management, including recording, analyzing, managing, and supervision. The most vital issue is to have basic records of the following
1. A program is required that notifies management any time a unit or officer is building up overtime so the reason can be looked into immediately.
2. An agreement should be reached with the courts to limit personnel needed in court, to eliminate the need for supervisory police personnel, and to create a court schedule that conforms to straight time as much as possible.
3. Written guidelines are needed for instructing supervisors when to approve shift extensions.
4. Good records on overtime are mandatory.
5. Emergency planning must be done with straight- time personnel.
6. Special events, including traffic control, need to be planned well ahead of time, using special police officers on straight time, and should involve other agencies.
7. Adjustable and flexible work schedules are a first line of defense.
8. All overtime should be through payroll financial compensation, never in compensatory time.
9. Departments should have adequate staffing to cover line and auxiliary functions and should not depend on overtime for basic coverage.
Proactive Policies for Controlling Overtime
What percent of the departments surveyed in the nationwide sample were able to provide the number of overtime hours worked.
• The tools to explain the use of overtime to legislatures
• The ability to eliminate costly labor contract provisions
• The ability to create an efficient system to monitor and control overtime.
Proactive control of overtime through data analysis and an instantly available computer-based information system will give proactive police management
( 1) someone up there in management land is listening and that ( 2) he or she has a real and responsible input into the orders that affect his or her everyday professional life. People need to feel in control of their lives. Capricious orders with no explanation destroy this feeling of control.
Officers and managers, especially middle managers, need communication skills so that the line officer will feel
• Shift work • Quasimilitary structure • Need to repress emotions and keep a psychological distance • Lack of promotions and very few lateral transfers • Media image of the supercop to live up to • Police cynicism • Frustration and lack of input into the police bureaucracy • Fear and danger ( killing a citizen or having a fellow officer killed, especially your partner) • Social isolation • Retirement • Excessive paperwork • Frustration with the judicial system • Impact of a profession stressing danger and imposing stress on the spouse and children.
Some stress- related factors in police work
( Niederhoffer, 1967 ; Stratton, 1984 ):
“( 1) the particular stresses they face, ( 2) the extent to which the legal system backs them and rewards them with convictions for the good arrests, ( 3) their zone of stability, and ( 4) their support system.”
In Stress Management for Law Enforcement Officers , Anderson et al. ( 1995 : 283) show four major factors that affect officers’ negative attitudes toward their work
: 1. Assessment. Through assessment, police executives learn which stressors are affecting their supervisors. 2. Planning. The police executives remove the stressors in a cost- effective manner. Standfest says that fundamental approaches, such as repairing station houses and vehicles, could reduce a great deal of stress at low cost. 3. Action. Police executives fully carry out any plan and let the supervisors know what is going on. 4. Follow- through. Police executives evaluate the action, making sure that the orders were fully carried out, and assess the outcomes.
Training and stress management is just as important for supervisors and managers as for any line officer. Standfest has a four- stage approach
1. Clear and current policies and procedures concerning work tasks reduce police role ambiguity.
2. A consistent expectation by supervisors concerning their subordinates, along with a clear two- way feedback system, is essential.
3. Officers and supervisors need to have a high tolerance for ambiguity.
4. Active participation by all authority levels in decision making provides a system of mutual responsibility that continually relieves stress.
Anderson and colleagues ( 1995 : 130) show the nature of police role stressors and role over-load. These recommendations can be summarized as follows:
“( 1) teaching the officers ‘ verbal judo’; that is, how to use words to control citizens’ behavior; ( 2) showing the officers the laws that apply and when to use them; and ( 3) explaining the nature and characteristics of the particular public they serve” ( Anderson et al., 1995 : 285). This is exactly what proactive participatory management and proactive community policing do when they are working effectively.
Supervisors can reduce stress by
• Implementing a consistent and biocompatible work schedule with controls for overtime • Teaching employees and their families about how to manage shift work • Not letting employees drive home while fatigued by providing free rides and a place to nap • Setting up a permanent employee/ management task force to manage fatigue
the alertness assurance program is a proactive approach that can help protect departments from lawsuits resulting from mistakes made by tired officers. Following are some elements of the program:
• Minimize shift changes. • Maximize work hour regularity. • Never use weekly shift changes. • Always rotate forward. • Don’t let tired cops hit the streets.
• Minimize mandatory overtime, and develop an overtime policy. • Provide a bright, stimulating nighttime environment with opportunities to eat healthful food.
Vila offers other recommendations for fatigue management ( 2000 : 146):
1. Spotting a suspect or finding people in crisis heightens alertness. 2. Dawn brings natural alertness and new energy. Midnight to dawn is a down time for the human body. 3. Not having enough sleep over more than a day drains your “ sleep bank.” 4. Coffee and doughnuts provide immediate stimulation but cause a crash within an hour. 5. Cold air from a car window brings alertness, whereas hot, humid air brings drowsiness. 6. When the hum of the car tires start to lull you to sleep, stopping and walking around will help. This is the kind of knowledge supervisors must bring home to police officers.
Behind some of these recommendations are useful training concepts, such as “ alertness switches,” which can affect an officer’s performance during nighttime hours:
• Killing a person who was trying to choke an officer • Responding to a car accident in which the officer’s daughter died • Search- and- recovery operations after a drowning • Being gunned down by an armed suspect An officer who takes another human life goes through a number of physical and mental reactions that will never entirely go away ( Myles, 1986 ).
In one seminar attended by one of the authors, a panel of veteran police officers recounted the following post-trauma experiences to a class of police recruits
1. Get out of the office.
2. Rotate assignments.
3. Implement line/ staff intervention.
Recommendations for counteracting this state of affairs
LINE/ STAFF CONFLICT AND COOPERATION
A common complaint is that staff personnel always stay in their office or the station house, thereby having little idea about what is going on outside. It is healthy for staff personnel, sworn and civilian, to ride along on patrol or be temporarily assigned to a line function, so as to keep in touch with the concerns of the line personnel.
1. Get out of the office.
Sworn personnel should occasionally be assigned to staff functions. Sworn police officers should be doing police work in the field. On the other hand, assigning line personnel to staff units from time to time can enlarge the former’s perspective on the overall nature of police administration so that they can better utilize staff work when they go back out on the streets. It also allows police administrators to review those individuals who have useful technical expertise or who are aspiring to become police administrators. Basically, this can be an excellent training ground for future executives.
2. Rotate assignments
In addition to ride- along or staff assignments, further interaction should be encouraged through meetings and seminars. For example, staff research on the right type of vehicle to be used for patrol should include patrol officers since they will eventually be affected by the decision.
3. Implement line/ staff intervention.
1. Civilians should never be armed, even if they have a gun permit. 2. In case of a violent incident, civilians should not leave the patrol car and should leave any confrontation to the professionally trained police officer. 3. The department should define whether civilians should be allowed to use video. 4. Civilians should be aware that this is a working police officer who has a duty to perform and that they should not, in any way, interfere with the carrying out of that duty.
Civilians need to be instructed in terms of what to do and what not to do. At a minimum, the following should be considered when preparing agency policy:
1. An application or resume with a cover letter stating the duration of the program and the name of the school supervisor
2. A recent writing sample
3. A statement of learning goals that correspond to the student’s career plans and the department’s operations 4. The criteria from the educational institution for final evaluation
5. A memorandum of understanding between the school and the department regarding the goals of the program and the responsibilities of both the agency and the college
6. Evidence of insurance by the institution for liability in the event of a civil lawsuit for an action taken by the student intern
7. A health insurance policy for the student in case there is an internship- related injury
Departments with a well- established intern program use the following guidelines for intern selection and participation.
1. Operation Identification.
2. Neighborhood Watch.
two examples of crime prevention programs
In this program, the police department allows citizens to borrow an engraver and etch an identification number on certain valuable items. The item of property and its identification number are then recorded in a police log. This process is useful if the engraved item is stolen and later recovered.
1. Operation Identification.
devised by the National Sheriffs’ Association, incorporates the ancient notion of frankpledge. Each person on a street block is responsible for watching out for suspicious individuals and incidents, especially those related to burglaries. The role of the community relations units for this program is to foster the need for collective security in the neighborhood and to instruct citizens under what circumstances to call for the police. Residents are issued decals that are posted in windows and doors indicating that the residence participates in the program, thereby attempting to foster some sort of deterrence.
2. Neighborhood Watch.
• Community emergency- response teams ( CERT) • Neighborhood Watch • Volunteer in Police Service ( VIPS) • Terrorism Information and Prevention System ( TIPS) • Medical Reserve Corps These popular programs involve citizen volunteers in auxiliary police activities.
CITIZEN VOLUNTEER PROGRAMS
: 1. Preparing releases on police- related news. Such news includes a daily police log, the status of investigations, crime trends, and other information deemed necessary for public knowledge.
2. Coordinating the scheduling of press conferences and updating web and social media pages.
3. Preparing or coordinating special audiovisual materials or pamphlets, such as PowerPoint presentations, handouts, or videotape presentations that portray department operations.
4. Coordinating the creation of Internet homepages or electronic newsletters.
the role of the (CRO) Community Relations Officer
1. Field counseling or verbal reprimand 2. Written reprimand/ formal counseling 3. Loss of vacation days or fine 4. Suspension with or without pay 5. Reduction in rank or change of assignment 6. Dismissal 7. Criminal prosecution
More serious departmental offenses that would still not be considered criminal offenses might include discourtesy to a citizen during the performance of a duty, an accident with a patrol vehicle, or drinking on duty. In these cases, there are a range of sanctions that can normally be employed:
1. A ban against the use of polygraphs or alcohol- detection devices.
2. Defined hours when an interrogation may occur between a suspected officer and investigators.
3. Advance notice advising an officer that he or she is subject to an investigation. Such notice may include the name and address of the complainant and the alleged act.
4. Complex procedures that make it virtually impossible to dismiss or discipline an officer.
5. The right of an officer to pick certain members of the review panel that will hear his or her case.
Union rules may include the following for the investigation of police officers:
1. Documentation.2. Sanctions. 3. Administration.
The three elements of progressive discipline are as follows:
It is the duty of the supervisor to document infractions and bring them to the attention of the officer. In case of tardiness, some kind of official action must take place the first time the officer is late.
to be imposed, again ranging from verbal reprimand to a more serious punishment, must be related to the seriousness of the offense. For example, termination from the job is not a proper sanction for an officer who is late for duty for the first time. Termination, however, may be appropriate if the officer has been documented late on 30 occasions over a two- month period.
The sanctions must be equally administered to all portions of the department. It is not correct practice if discipline is meted out to one shift or sector but not to another. There must be consistency— which is difficult because of the range of situations and personalities involved in supervision.
1. Notice of the nature of the investigation and the name of the complainant, if known
2. Time and place of interrogation or hearing
3. Right to legal counsel at interrogation or hearing
4. The recording of interrogations and hearings
5. Written notification of determination and disposition of the complaint, with reasons presented for the disposition
Based on our review of collective bargaining agreements, the rights of a police officer suspected of wrongdoing involve the following:
three recommendations that can be provided police management in terms of dealing with equity and protecting department morale
,• Consistency • Consistency • Consistency This means that written procedures must be followed and that punishment must fit the offense.
• To gain the attention of the citizen • To establish social distance • To label and degrade citizens • To dominate and control citizens
White et al. ( 1994) give four situational reasons why police officers use obscenity in interactions with citizens:
1. Complaints— officers with five or more complaints with a finding of sustained or inconclusive during the past two years
2. Control of persons ( use of force)— officers involved as principals in five or more use- of-force incidents during the past two years
3. Reprimands— employees with five or more reprimands during the past five years 4. Discharge of firearms— officers who discharged their firearms on three or more occasions during the past five years
The Miami Police Department uses the following criteria to identify problem officers ( Walker et al., 2001 ):
4. Referral to an employee- assistance program
5. Fitness- for- duty evaluation
6. Dismissal pursuant to civil rules and regulations
programs to work with problem officers. Miami has six different ways to handle these officers ( Walker et al., 2001 ):
• Felony and misdemeanor crimes committed by officers on and off duty • Payoffs for not performing a duty • Nonfeasance ( failure to perform an official duty) or performing a duty incorrectly • Gratuities • Sexual abuse and sexual favors • Free services and goods • Abuse of deadly and physical force • “ Noble- cause reasons,” which deal with bypassing department procedures, lying under oath, or violating a suspect’s constitutional rights to enforce the law
Based on works by Barker and Carter ( 1994b), Crank and Caldero ( 2000), and Lersch ( 2002), police misconduct activities can be said to include
1. How many civil lawsuits are we facing? How much have we paid in legal fees and judgments?
2. How many civilian complaints did we receive? What was the breakdown of these com-plaints: discourteous behavior, poor driving habits, use of force, drug use, spousal abuse, and so on? How were these complaints resolved? Were they found to be justified? If so, what disciplinary action was taken?
3. How many disciplinary actions were initiated by the department based on supervisory referrals? What were the categories? How were they resolved? How many officers were punished?
4. How many use- of- force actions were taken by department members? Were they justified, based on internal or external ( e. g., grand jury) review?
5. Do the civilian or departmental disciplinary actions seem to be directed toward a certain group of officers? 6. What is the relationship between performance evaluations and disciplinary actions for officers and supervisors?
7. Based on after- action reports, polls, and media articles, how does the public perceive us?
8. To what extent is ethics training conducted at all department levels?
9. How are department policies and regulations updated to reflect legal changes or new case law?
10. What new training programs may be needed to address specific legal issues?
When conducting a misconduct assessment, the first step is the internal review. The following questions should be asked during an annual review:
1. Prohibited conduct is defined in the department rules manual, and the department manual is a “ living” document that is kept updated and is constantly used for reference.
2. Citizens can make a complaint in person, by letter, by phone, or anonymously. Complaint procedures are well publicized.
3. The steps for complaint investigation, follow- up, and resolution are known not only to department members but also to the community at large. This includes officer protections provided in state civil service rules or the collective bargaining agreement.
Misconduct assessment is based on three major premises
1. Procedures that are undertaken to discipline based on violations of law, agency policy, rules, or regulations
2. The acceptance and filing of complaints ( this addresses the forms that are used and what office or supervisor receives the complaint)
3. Investigation procedures by either the supervisor or another administrator
4. Interview procedures of employees and witnesses
5. Rules for drug or blood tests of employees
6. The right of employees to have union representation or counsel
7. The filing of charges if necessary
8. The resolution of the charges
a standard operations policy that deals with the steps to address complaints. As prepared by the International Association of Chiefs of Police ( 2000), a policy of this nature addresses
1. Written notice of the claimed violation
2. Disclosure of evidence
3. Opportunity to be heard in person and to present witnesses and documentary evidence
4. Right to confront and cross- examine witnesses
5. Neutral and detached hearing body
6. Written statement by the fact finders as to the evidence relied on and the reasons for the actions taken
Due process rights for police officers during a police hearing were established in Morrisey v . Brewer in 1972 by the U. S. Supreme Court ( More, 1998 ).
1. Identification of officers who consistently use excessive force or other police deviance with active intervention through a combination of counseling, sanctions, and removal from the police force, if necessary, should be done.
2. Analysis and random monitoring of tape- recorded patrol car messages, with special emphasis on officers who are part of a targeted excessive- force group or who use a consistent pattern of obscenities and racist remarks.
3. Special investigation and intervention by a team of departmental investigators, lawyers, and counselors should be carried out.
4. Written procedures for all investigations of police misconduct, including rules for witnesses and other rules of evidence, to be published and made available to all police officers and the public.
5. Specific departmental rules outlining the limits of force used by police officers, to be published and made available to both police officers and the public.
6. Ongoing analysis of excessive use of force as part of the schedule of analysis and written reports by departmental research staff or, if the department lacks expertise and staff time, outside consultants.
7. Swift prosecution of any illegal acts by police officers and any false accusations by citizens.
8. Ongoing training for dealing with stress and anger control.
9. Procedures for informing citizens and officers of the outcome of any complaint, in writing, with documentation, and in a timely manner.
10. Transparent internal affairs proceedings that include the public and the press in the process.
11. Appeal for unsatisfied complaints by both the officers and citizens to an authority outside the department.
1. Strict and enforced departmental rules in place concerning the use of police violence
2. A stress- management and anger- control system that actively engages officers on an ongoing basis
3. A fair and public due process system for both the police and the public
4. A civilian rather than a military police management subculture
5. A professional follow- up team that deals with the use of all police violence— reasonable, excessive, justifiable, and unjustifiable.
Writing about the “ split- second syndrome” of police violence, James J. Fyfe ( 1997 : 539) states, “ The urgent, involuntary and public relationship between police and client creates a high potential for violence. To avert it, police must apply considerable diagnostic skills.” A proactive police department will have the following skills
• Does not threaten his or her sense of identity as a police officer • Does not lower the professional status or authority of a police officer • Rewards police officers in terms of postings and promotions for implementing community policing • Will remain a permanent part of departmental police procedures
The only way a police chief can implement community policing is to have middle management convince the patrol officer that community policing . . .
1. The agenda for police activities must be set by citizens, not by the police administrators.
2. Middle management must be trained and directly involved in the implementation of community policing, from inception to final performance.
3. There must be a split force.
4. Community policing must be a permanent policy of the department, not dependent on grant money, which comes and goes.
5. Community problem- solving groups are created to identify problems and explore solutions with police managers.
6. The prevention of crime must be the major police goal.
7. Officers must strive to improve the quality of life in a community.
How can a police manager decide if community policing is really taking place? The following seven criteria have to be in place:
. Each officer is a principal who independently contracts with an employer for a particular job.
1. The officer contract model
An officer’s union or association brokers the employment for its members so that they need not search for their own job and negotiate pay.
2. The union brokerage model .
The department is the principal agent for officers and contracts their secondary employment.
3. The department contract model .
. 1. There is a need for police training in human relations skills.
2. Community policing efforts must focus on problems that the community has identified.
3. The impact of community policing is positive on both the police and the citizens.
4. Police get the benefit of civilian support in neighborhoods and businesses and support for the police budget.
5. The citizens get to know the police as human beings and as professionals.
6. The citizens see police in a positive light because the police are helping to solve the problems in their neighborhoods.
Community policing increases a positive community attitude to the police department and officer morale. What this article adds is a rigorous evaluation over eight years of serious violent and property crime reduction produced by the community policing model. The study above shows some parallels with previous case studies reviewed by the author for St. Petersburg, Florida, Seattle, Washington, and Chicago, Illinois
positive attitudes of the community toward policing and positive attitudes of police officers toward their jobs, and mixed results concerning crime reduction over the years ( Connel et al., 2008 : 127– 50).
The three major outcomes of community policing are
• Gave geographic responsibility to patrol
• Have a citizen police academy
• Conduct beat/ neighborhood meeting open to the public
• Opened neighborhood substations
• Adopted problem- solving techniques
• Developed information systems to support problem solving
• Conduct citizen surveys on a regular basis
• Decision making occurs in lower ranks
• Developed evaluation for evaluating success of community policing
• Decentralized detectives
• Changed communication center on how citizen calls are handled
• Eliminated one or more ranks
In 2000, the federal government published a nationwide survey of community policing activities that impacted patrol, crime prevention, and problem solving ( Miller and Hess, 2005 : 472)
1. Identification of problem areas.
2. Collection of information.
3. Processing and exploitation.
4. Analysis and production.
As described by Carter ( 2004 : 161– 70), the model intelligence process used by the FBI includes the following
1. Sensitive but unclassified. This information has been declassified by removing the sources or methods by which the information was obtained. The information is not available to the public.
2. For official use only ( FOUO). The FOUO designation is used by the Department of Home-land Security to identify unclassified information that has an impact on community safety or a person’s privacy.
For general law enforcement use, information can be released according to the following two categories:
This information has been declassified by removing the sources or methods by which the information was obtained. The information is not available to the public.
1. Sensitive but unclassified.
The FOUO designation is used by the Department of Home-land Security to identify unclassified information that has an impact on community safety or a person’s privacy.
2. For official use only ( FOUO).
• Saturation patrols in high- crime neighborhoods • Creation of operational Safe Haven for children • Saturation patrols coupled with an anti- gun violence educational program to deal with fire-arms on school grounds • Hiring additional off- duty police officers to run youth programs • Increasing treatment services for neighborhood drug addicts • Community beautification programs, including the removal of graffiti and vacant buildings in rundown areas • Classes for first- time homeowners in obtaining a mortgage
Each Weed and Seed program is limited to receiving federal funds for five years ( Vandecovering, 2006 ). Federal funds are then used for additional equipment and resources for a wide number of operations, which can include
1. Specific names are needed for specific locations.
2. A criterion must be created for the definition of a “ chronic location.”
3. The calls have to be categorized.
4. An action plan must be formulated and implemented. 5. An evaluation must be implemented.
With a good data- analysis management system tied into the 911 system, a proactive plan for policing hot spots can be created. There are a number of issues:
1. The most restrictive written pursuit policy should be in place as a general order.
2. Police pursuit training needs to be universal and continual for all patrol officers.
3. Police pursuit training needs to include the discussion of the criteria used by a police officer to pursue a fleeing vehicle and how to operationalize these criteria.
4. Low- risk, low- speed pursuits are preferable to high- risk, high- speed pursuits.
5. Alternative vehicle- stopping devices are preferable to police pursuit.
6. Vehicle- stopping policies, such as stopsticks and newer technology being tested to automatically shut off engines of fleeing perpetrator vehicles, should eventually be substituted for the present high- risk pursuit policies.
Police pursuit policies have been crafted to reflect the following recommendations because of the high risk for traffic accidents and possible injury and death to suspects and bystanders:
The key players for any change are ____, which can be a difficult process in view of our discussion on police subculture.
line and middle- management personnel in the department
This means that the manager is able to handle problems for which insufficient information precludes making a totally informed decision. The effective manager must also have a keen sense of appreciation and understanding of widely different viewpoints and cultures and be able to approach problems and people with no preconceptions.
Tolerance of ambiguity
What superimposes computer- generated data on a city street grid or other map?
An emergency situation is localized to one person or a small group of people.
1. Crisis intervention.
An emergency involves disruption of services caused by fire, large crowds, criminal event, or weather.
2. Community emergency.
. An emergency is larger in scope and caused by human or environ-mental factors.
3. Regional emergency
Functions of the NIMS
_____ this means that government and interested private sector organizations must assess and prepare to deal with major emergencies.
_____— includes identifying, storing, and tracking the personnel, equipment, and related supplies for eventual deployment in a major emergency.
______— the three parts are found in the Incident Command System ( ICS), Multiagency Coordination System, and Public Information.
_____— the creation of standards, credentialing, and training are undertaken by the National Integration Center and the Incident Management Systems Integration Division under the FEMA.
Command and Management
Management and Maintenance
is that all members of an organization are leaders. Whether a person is a dispatcher, patrol officer, field supervisor, or chief, operational policing requires all its members to make decisions, take actions, and be held accountable for what occurs.
Of note, the Bureau of Justice Statistics ( US BJS, Community Policing, 2012 ) reported that ____% of police agencies in the United States deployed full- time community policing officers in 2003.
Focuses on the citizens' problems and concerns
Indications are that the economic recovery plans of the current administration include approximately $ _____for state and local law enforcement, which includes pro-grams in community- related crime reduction efforts ( U. S. Department of Justice, 2009 ).
Managerial Concerns The first concern pertains to the intelligence gathering function and who and what groups are to be targeted. The guidelines for this are found in ______, which contains the standards for intelligence gathering for both individual and multiagency units.
28 Code of Federal Regulations ( CFR) Part 23
Clark and O' Hara cited how many and what type of police officers committed suicide in 2012.
How many and what type of person?
126 committed suicide
average age was 42
amount of time as a police officer was 16 years
91% were male
63% were single