In every organization, there are three major areas of work: 1. A_______ 2. S_________ 3. O_________
- Administration 2. Supervision 3. Operations
____________ are performed by top management and the immediate subordinates of the top- management team.
_________ is normally performed by the immediate supervisors of line personnel.
__________ are performed by line personnel who normally have direct contact with the public and who carry out the daily police activities.
POSDCORB is a classic theoretical model that describes the major functions of an organization and how these functions are carried out. The acronym POSDCORB stands for p______, o_______, s_______, d______, c________, r_______, and b______.
planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting.
Planning This activity includes short- and long- range planning that specifies goals and objectives in cooperation with ________. Cooperating with other public agencies is a _______.
other public agencies
_______ deals with the creation of the formal structure of the police organization, the work of the enterprise. The goal is to coordinate all the ________ to perform most efficiently to meet the purposes of the organization.
The organization itself becomes the total responsibility of the ________ and reflects the organizational ability of the _________.
top- management team
The key to success is to create an organizational structure in which the right person does the right job at the ________with the correct level of personal and organizational ______.
The ________of management covers such aspects of the organization as hiring, firing, and training, as well as assigning personnel to specific tasks and roles.
There is also a concern with establishing ________, including safe and appropriate physical facilities.
satisfactory working conditions
In theory, staffing includes developing ________. Each job should be clearly defined and filled by a qualified employee. Qualified means that the employee has the necessary skills, background, and training to accomplish the tasks that the job description calls for.
Job satisfaction should also be considered. Every attempt should be made to match each employee to a job where he or she is • S______ • Q______ • G_____
Satisfied • Qualified • Gratified
In directing , the police manager needs to ( 1) act as the ________ of the organization and ( 2) direct the _______ of the enterprise.
day- to- day activities
Using modern management principles, this is normally a team process in which the leader receives information and advice from the ________. The information that is obtained through this consultative process should lead to a _______.
top- management team
A police manager using this approach should seek advice from __________ as well as from top- management staff and experts in law enforcement. Then, once a decision has been made, the team is expected to carry out daily the specified directions and procedures.
local community leaders
The two major activities in this category are ( 1) coordinating police agencies with ________ in the community and ( 2) coordinating activities within _________. Coordination is designed to bring about ________ on specific courses of action to solve specific problems.
other private and public agencies
the police department itself
_________ entails keeping the flow of information going up, down, and across the organization. It also includes reporting to the police organization’s ________.
political superiors: mayors, county executives, and the like.
Communication flows in an organized manner through a __________ to all superiors and subordinates. Increasingly important for modern management is lateral flow to _______ and ______.
three- dimensional matrix
specialists and staff
Budgeting includes preparing an annual financial plan and operating within the confines of the plan. Budgeting is a form of _________ and requires knowledge of the kinds of budget models available. Most police departments operate on some variation of ________.
line- item budgeting
Police administrators and supervisors in small departments readily admit that they are forced to be _______ simply because they are the only person on duty during certain shifts.
Regardless of size, the ________ requires conceptual skills, the ability to develop long- range goals, and the ability to communicate with all segments of the community.
If anything, by the very nature of their presence in the community, the members of a small department indeed practice community policing by ______ and by providing a ________.
knowing virtually everyone in the community
wide range of services
The RESPECT Approach to Supervision : The acronym RESPECT stands for • R\_\_\_\_\_ • E\_\_\_\_\_ • S\_\_\_\_\_ • P\_\_\_\_\_ • E\_\_\_\_\_ • C\_\_\_\_\_ • T\_\_\_\_\_
Reporting • Evaluation • Services • Planning • Ethics • Control • Teaching
REPORTING A police organization, among other things, is basically a ________fulfilling its responsibility to keep all members informed so that they can adequately perform their assigned duties.
complex communication network
In the important area of internal communications, management needs to know what the ________. The line supervisor and the internal department supervisor are in a position to perform this vital communication function by _______.
officers are thinking and how they are acting
reviewing reports and recording observations
Orders must be communicated to staff, and it is the supervisor who converts orders to operational activities. Communication is a vital two- way flow for every police organization. Supervisors need a basic knowledge of communication skills and communication links if they are to perform effectively. They must distinguish between statements and ______.
The supervisor’s basic responsibility is to continuously inspect and evaluate the officers in terms of their a_____, u______, h____, and p_____.
appearance, use of equipment, habits, and performance
Even “ unmeasurables,” such as _______ and the ability to deal with people, have to be a solid part of the evaluation and inspection process.
SERVICES: Since the police department is a public service organization, one of the supervisor’s first responsibilities is to maintain the quality of the delivery of services to the citizens. This is done by making ________ part of the evaluation of each officer.
community relations activities
Top management must thus constantly reward its supervisors for the effective delivery of ______. Thus, an effective law enforcement support team can create a department that is deeply concerned with helping each citizen of the community.
quality human service
PLANNING: This function refers to both long- and short- range planning and implementation. Supervisors are normally involved with daily planning activities such as scheduling the roster and reviewing patrol and detective assignments. Management must _________.
involve these supervisors in longer range planning, specifying the needs of the unit( s) for the next month, year, or even decade
A major rule in management communication is that the closer you are to your data, the more _______. As the first line of management, informed and involved supervisors are vitally needed if planning is to be implemented.
accurate your knowledge of the data is
PLANNING: It is the supervisory managers who will be in charge of actually carrying out the detailed implementation of long- range planning. Supervision and planning need to come together before ________ can be accomplished.
The ____________ is necessary in any implementation of policy; policy will work in the field only with the active understanding and cooperation of supervisor personnel.
voluntary cooperation of supervisory personnel
ETHICS: Professional organizations, including police organizations, have a code of ethics, which is defined as _________. Implementation of the profession’s code of ethics depends on the ________ and is strongly related to the _______ of personnel.
standards of conduct and moral judgment applied to everyday operations
ETHICS: Problems arise because of the lack of _________.
communication and inaction
ETHICS: Morale is also determined by management that has ____________ of line personnel.
sympathetic knowledge of the problems
CONTROL: Effective management must control both ______ and ______, providing guidance and instilling a sense of responsibility. With increasingly scarce resources available to public agencies, their efficient use will be a paramount measure of management success in the future.
personnel and material
CONTROL: Knowledge and effective use of personnel are critical because _______ percent of the average police budget is devoted to personnel. Personnel hours are money. Reactive management wastes human resources by failing to _________.
TEACHING: The supervisor is concerned with personnel reaching their _________. By providing good direction and constantly training personnel in the use of proper procedures for meeting the objectives of the police organization, supervisors become ______.
TEACHING: As corporate management has learned, ________ is needed to run an efficient organization; training is needed to develop leadership as well as skills.
regular in- service training
The acronym RESPECT symbolizes the need for management to show respect for the basic integrity of the individual and to treat each employee in a professional manner. In the absence of this approach, the organization will be inefficient and autocratic and will experience many morale problems. A positive climate conducive to cooperation is created when ______ is shown by management for all personnel and by all personnel for management.
________ is defined as all the activities necessary to carry out the basic goals of the organization. Controlling crime and providing service are the major goals for law enforcement agencies.
Operations include ( 1) l______, ( 2) s________, and ( 3) a___________. This is the basic way the police organization is structured.
( 1) line functions,
( 2) staff/ administrative functions, and
( 3) auxiliary/ service functions.
Line Functions For close to a century, full- service enforcement agencies have organized line functions into the following categories: ( 1) p_____, ( 2) t________, ( 3) i__________, ( 4) v___, and ( 5) j____.
( 1) patrol, ( 2) traffic, ( 3) investigation ( detectives), ( 4) vice, and ( 5) juvenile.
This function (patrol) provides a public manifestation of the police through uniformed personnel being visible in marked patrol vehicles. This leads to home rule pride and the creation of many new, small police departments. A major concern for modern police management is the consolidation of police forces to eliminate _______ and to provide more efficient delivery of services.
overlapping police jurisdictions
VICE: The members of this nonuniformed, investigative unit focus on specific crimes, such as prostitution, gambling, and narcotics. Many of these crimes have been called________, although many law enforcement managers consider this designation to be quite controversial.
JUVENILE It is estimated that roughly _____ percent of street crimes are committed by youths between the ages of 8 and 18. The crime statistics are showing increasingly younger offenders, however. Juvenile laws and due process for juveniles differ from adult penal and criminal process statutes. Officers assigned to this function require specialized training so that they can work closely with juveniles, parents, and various juvenile authorities.
Staff/ Administrative Functions: The administrative staff directly assists ______. They have no command or patrol duties but are responsible for the everyday activities that concern the management team.
Staff/ Administrative Units:
- Inspections/ Internal Affairs
- Legal advisor
- Research and planning
- Public relations
- Community relations
- Crime prevention
The staff/ administrative functions are necessary to support the________, which are directly related to the output services of the agency. Auxiliary functions are important, but the management team normally does not need ______ from these units.
_______are the support and maintenance jobs that need to be performed by every organization. All patrol and investigation units make use of these functions at some time or other.
Auxiliary/ service functions
The following services might be included in the police organization: Auxiliary/ Service Units
- License section
- Data processing
- Maintenance section
- Identification bureau
- Crime laboratory
- Transport sections
- Animal complaints
- Property clerk’s office