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Flashcards in Chp 14 Proactive Planning Deck (80):
1

***START***
Part of strategic planning includes _________, which is a comprehensive review of assets that could be damaged, stolen, or lost and countermeasures to prevent major occurrences ( Curtis and McBride, 2005 ).

risk management

2

In private business, assets include p____, e______, p______, I______, and r_______.

include people, equipment, property, information, and reputation.

3

__________ can include a backup plan, removing the threat or obtaining insurance if such an event were to occur.

Countermeasures

4

The most active litigated areas are i_________, u_______, a_________, h_________, and c________.

internal employment practices, use of force, arrest situations, high- speed pursuits, and civil rights violations.

5

__________ occurs when a person commits a crime in conjunction with his or her official duties.

Criminal liability

6

A civil action, or _____, is a wrong committed against another party. In these actions the offended party wishes to obtain damages or prevent further occurrences.

tort

7

Most tort actions are based on _________.

state law

8

The three major areas in torts, or civil wrongs, are i_______, n__________, and s____________.

The three major areas in torts, or civil wrongs, are intentional conduct, negligence, and strict liability conduct.

9

In an intentional action, it was the person’s conscious choice to commit an act, such as assault, defamation, false arrest, and malicious prosecution. In a case involving negligence, the officer or organization is alleged to have failed to perform an act or to exercise the care that a responsible or prudent person would exercise; In strict liability cases, the person is held to a tort proceeding regardless of _________; liability is imposed because the action occurred.

intent or negligence

10

The term __________ is often discussed in civil actions. This occurs when the employer is also held responsible when the employee was acting as an agent of the organization.

vicarious liability

11

According to Robert J. Meadows ( 1999 : 156), in his review of legal issues and police, the top eight litigation issues, based on a survey of police chiefs of 20 cities with over 100,000 in population, are as follows:
1. U______
2. A_______
3. A_______
4. E_______
5. H________
6. D_________
7. R________
8. J________

1. Use of force
2. Auto pursuit
3. Arrest/ search
4. Employee drug test
5. Hiring and promotion
6. Discrimination based on race, sex, or age
7. Record keeping and privacy
8. Jail management

12

Up to this point, we have been examining planning as a long- range endeavor. Of the types discussed, _______ comes closest to short- range planning in that immediate needs in the fiscal year are normally analyzed in terms of function and performance.

fiscal planning

13

For long- range planning to work, s______ and even o_______ need to be created to carry out the plan. Long- range plans also need f________that can be used to modify the plan as it is operationally carried out.

specific objectives
orders
feedback- evaluation systems

14

__________ plans control the day-to- day activity of the police organization in a uniform manner. Specific procedures have to be created to carry out police duties in a predictable manner so that there can be accountability and consistency.

Operational

15

The ________. A major example of an operational plan, although many police chief executives do not recognize it as such

duty manual

16

The duty manual is supplemented by both ________and ________. If these two supplementary procedures are in place, they may become part of the duty manual.

temporary operating procedures ( TOPs) and SOPs

17

Patrol planning. Another major example of an operational plan and one that dominates a department is a ___________.

patrol allocation plan

18

PATROL STAFFING MODEL There are a number of patrol planning models that are used in the United States. One developed by the International Association of Chiefs of Police involves measuring calls for service to determine the number of patrol posts and staff needed to fill these posts.
1. The total calls for service for each tour of duty are obtained for one year ( 12 months).
2. The 12- month total is multiplied by the ________.
3. The hours per year in calls for service are multiplied by ______ (“ buffer” factor)
4. The total hours are divided by 2,920 ( 8 hours × 365 = 2,920). The quotient equals the minimum number of patrol posts needed for the particular tour of duty.

average time required to complete a call for service.

3

19

In general, shifts during the evening to early morning hours generate the most calls because of the general rise of crime activity, heavy traffic, and human events. A “call for service” can range from an actual crime to a request to check on the welfare. Calls for service can be self- initiated. Thus it is important to have data generated by the _________, which can track calls for every shift throughout the year.

communications unit

20

Determining Staffing:

The figure of ______ is the number of hours a typical officer is away from duty each year.

1,416

This is subtracted from 2,920 hours to produce an hours- available figure of 1,504. An assignment/ availability factor is obtained by dividing the hours- available figure of 1,504 hours into 2,920 hours, which creates a factor of 1.94, the number of personnel needed to fill each post.

21

the actual level of staffing is going to be based on a number of factors; the most important being

budget

22

There were a number of studies critical of response time in the 1970s ( Bercal, 1970 ; Reiss, 1971 ; Meyer, 1976 ; Maxfield, 1979 ). Less than ____ percent of service calls are related to criminal matters, and emergency calls account for less than___percent of all service calls. Even in relation to crime, normally too much time elapses from the time the crime is committed and to when the police are called.

20%

15%

23

Cohen and McEwen ( 1984 : 4) report that “ research [ Farmer, 1981 ; Spelman and Brown, 1981 ] showed that police response time had no effect on the chances of on- scene arrest in ___ to ___ percent of serious crime cases.”

70-85%

24

Are citizens dissatisfied with slower response time? The answer is that citizens are dissatisfied only if _______

they expect rapid response time. However, “ if callers were told to expect a delay, their satisfaction did not significantly decrease if response time was slower” ( Cohen and McEwen, 1984 : 4).

25

All agencies need to use a _______ dispatching system.

priority classification

26

The __________ plans serve as control mechanisms for management by providing guide-lines for employees, both civilian and uniformed. __________plans give supervisors a means of evaluating personnel in relation to specific duties that are clearly defined and in writing.

Operational plans

Operational plans

27

________ plans are made for specific events and occurrences but are not part of the daily duties of police department personnel. This type of planning demands some specific detail in terms of procedures, but because of changing conditions in the field, it often demands more _______ than do other types of planning.

Contingency

flexibility

28

There are two major types of contingency plans:
1. ________, formulated based on what is expected to take place.
2. ________, come and go, and no one can predict when they will strike.

1. Tactical plans. These are plans for major events, such as crowd control at athletic events and VIP escorts.

2. Emergency plans. These are plans for general situations with the specifics to be inserted when the emergency occurs. When done in conjunction with other agencies, this type of planning is often termed planning for emergency mobilization .

29

_________are the response by local, state, and federal authorities to natural disasters, riots, civilian disorders, terrorism, and large events that disrupt the normal flow of commerce and life in a community or region.

Emergency mobilizations

30

To develop a reasonable plan for emergency and crisis management, departments, in concert with other agencies, should focus on overall planning efforts to four specific crisis or emergency levels:

1. ___________. An emergency situation is localized to one person or a small group of people.
2. ___________. An emergency affects a community and involves disruption of services caused by fire, large crowds, criminal event, or weather.


1. Crisis intervention. An emergency situation is localized to one person or a small group of people.
2. Community emergency. An emergency affects a community and involves disruption of services caused by fire, large crowds, criminal event, or weather.

31

To develop a reasonable plan for emergency and crisis management, departments, in concert with other agencies, should focus on overall planning efforts to four specific crisis or emergency levels:

3. _________. An emergency is larger in scope and caused by human or environ-mental factors.
4. __________. An emergency affects a state or an entire region, such as storms, nuclear accidents, and civil disturbances.

3. Regional emergency. An emergency is larger in scope and caused by human or environ-mental factors.
4. Major emergency. An emergency affects a state or an entire region, such as storms, nuclear accidents, and civil disturbances.

32

A planning model developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA) calls for the following planning strategy for dealing with these emergencies:

Step 1: E__________

Step 2: A___________

Step 3: D___________

Step 4: I___________

Step 1: Establish a Planning Team
Step 2: Analyze Capabilities and Hazards
Step 3: Develop the Plan
Step 4: Implement the Plan

33

A planning model developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA) calls for the following planning strategy for dealing with these emergencies:

These are part of which step?
Form the team
Establish authority from the chief executive
Issue a mission statement
Establish a schedule and budget


Step 1: Establish a Planning Team

34

A planning model developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA) calls for the following planning strategy for dealing with these emergencies:

These are part of which step?
Where do you stand right now?
Review internal plans and policies
Meet with all “ stakeholders” and agencies: fire, EMS, Haz-mat
Identify codes and regulations, Identify critical services and operations, Identify resources and capabilities
Conduct a hazard analysis
List potential emergencies ( both natural and human made)
Estimate probability
Assess the potential human impact , Assess the potential property and business impact, Assess the potential business impact ,Assess internal and external resources
Address terrorist situations

Step 2: Analyze Capabilities and Hazards

35

A planning model developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA) calls for the following planning strategy for dealing with these emergencies:
Which step?
List the plan components
Executive summary
Emergency management team identification
Emergency response assignments and call- up Functional annexes for operational responses
Map out the development process
Identify challenges, and prioritize activities
Write the plan
Establish a training schedule
Continue to coordinate with outside organizations Review, conduct training, and test the plan

Step 3: Develop the Plan

36

A planning model developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA) calls for the following planning strategy for dealing with these emergencies:
Which step?
Integrate the plan into agency operations, and conduct training
Distribute the plan
Conduct training activities
Evaluate and modify the plan

Step 4: Implement the Plan

37

On February 23, 2003, President Bush issued an executive order to the Secretary of Homeland Security to develop a national response plan. The backbone of such a system had already been created by a program called ___________), which was used by the U. S. Forest Service and many California agencies for fighting forest fires.

Incident Command System ( ICS

38

The core of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) centers on the following functions:

P_________
R_________
C_________
M_________

Preparedness—
Resource Management
Command and Management
Management and Maintenance

39

The core of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) centers on the following functions:
__________ — this means that government and interested private sector organizations must assess and prepare to deal with major emergencies.

Preparedness

40

The core of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) centers on the following functions:

__________— includes identifying, storing, and tracking the personnel, equipment, and related supplies for eventual deployment in a major emergency.

Resource Management

41

The core of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) centers on the following functions:

___________— the three parts of command and management are found in the Incident Command System ( ICS), Multiagency Coordination System, and Public Information.

Command and Management

42

The core of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) centers on the following functions:

_______________— the creation of standards, credentialing, and training are undertaken by the National Integration Center and the Incident Management Systems Integration Division under the FEMA. An important factor for NIMS is the ICS, which consists of the following components:

Management and Maintenance

43

An important factor for NIMS is the _____, which consists of the following components:
1. C_____.
2. O_____.
3. P______.
4. L______.
5. F______.
6. I_______.

ICS

1. Command.
2. Operations.
3. Planning.
4. Logistics.
5. Finance and administration.
6. Information and intelligence.

44

An important factor for NIMS is the ICS, which consists of the following components:
1. Command. The command function for an incident may consist of one person who is the incident commander and operates from a command post. Unified command occurs when ________.

there are different agencies responding to an event

45

An important factor for NIMS is the ICS, which consists of the following components:
1. Command. Included in the command function are the p______ officer, a s_____ officer, and a l_____ officer.

public information officer ( PIO), a safety officer, and a liaison officer to deal with secondary agencies

46

Unified command occurs when there are different agencies responding to an event. The goal here is to overcome d_______, s_______, and develop a c_______ to deal with an incident. Each agency head will be located in the command post.

duplication of effort, share information, and develop a common set of goals to deal with an incident.

47

An important factor for NIMS is the ICS, which consists of the following components:
2. Operations. This area ___________to deal with a situation and save lives and property. The operations section follows a _________ because in a wide- area emergency, various branches may have to be established because of geographic conditions

coordinates first responders

deployment model

48

An important factor for NIMS is the ICS, which consists of the following components:
3. Planning. This section presents ______ and ______gained from any sources. Planning functions for NIMS include obtaining information on the situation, possible resources, and technical support and preparing documentation for later evaluation.

information and intelligence

49

ICS
________ section may also include air operations, vehicle traffic, evacuation of civilians, waste management, decontamination, and investigative and evidence recovery.

Planning section

50

An important factor for NIMS is the ICS, which consists of the following components:
4. Logistics. This section is responsible for l_______ and t_________, c________, and m______ and s_______.

locating and transporting personnel, communications, and medical and safety equipment.

51

An important factor for NIMS is the ICS, which consists of the following components:
5. Finance and administration. This section is often overlooked but is ________. This group keeps cost estimates and records related to any _________. It also keeps __________ for eventual billing purposes for federal or state aid or private recovery efforts.

terribly important

fiscal expenditure

documentation

52

An important factor for NIMS is the ICS, which consists of the following components:
6. Information and intelligence. This function has been added to the model since March 2004. As discussed in Chapter 8 , intelligence is the process of ____________.

obtaining various bits of information and making some sense of them

53

Depending on the nature of the incident, information and intelligence may be assigned to _______ or ________.

planning or directly to command

54

It must be emphasized that planning will not alleviate crisis situations unless there are a________, d_____, preparations, and a willingness of various agencies to s_______.

adequate resources, drills, preparations, and a willingness of various agencies to share ideas.

55

One of the critical components of the four- pronged Emergency Management wheel: Planning, Response, Recovery, and Mitigation, is _______, where emergency response personnel review the most recent response for lessons learned— both good and bad. The goal of __________ is to first try to avoid a similar emergency from ever happening again, and if it does, to make its effect less impacting.

mitigation

mitigation

56

POLICE RESPONSE TO SPECIAL POPULATIONS:
Police have been called for assistance with special populations, such as the public inebriate, the mentally ill, and the homeless. these are not police problems but problems that really demand a _______. It makes sense for police to use the _________when it is available.

human services solution

human service agency net-work

57

It makes sense for police to use the human service agency net-work when it is available. However, networking cannot be done at random. Police managers need to do the following:
1. Develop a _________ to collaborate— preferably a written document that commits each group to the partnership.
2. Describe the _________ in the agreements that each party in the network will undertake.
3. Sooner or later involve _______ and ______ that provides emergency services to the target population.
4. Make sure that the arrangements benefit _______.

formal agreement

specific activities

every important agency and facility

every participant.

58

The object of _______ is to disrupt a community and implant fear in order to advance a p______, s_____, or r______ agenda.

terrorism

political, social, or religious

59

_______is the best way to contain a terrorist agenda.

Proactive planning

60

________ plan ahead, anticipate events, and act to prevent terror and crime. This approach calms the local community and lets the world know that the elected and appointed representatives of the citizens are in charge.

Proactive police managers

61

Proactive police departments need to deal with terrorism in four specific stages:
1. Preventing terrorist acts through p______, i______, and the gathering and sharing of local, regional, and national i_______.

planning, investigation, and the gathering and sharing of local, regional, and national intelligence

62

Proactive police departments need to deal with terrorism in four specific stages:

2. Handling terrorist acts through cooperation with and coordination of local, regional, and national agencies with a _________.

planned agenda of activity

63

Proactive police departments need to deal with terrorism in four specific stages:
3. Dealing with the aftermath of a terrorist act, including the coordination of p_______, p_______, and the u________ in an integrated effort.

post trauma human service, physical reconstruction, and the uplift of the community in an integrated effort

64

Proactive police departments need to deal with terrorism in four specific stages:
4. L______________and working with community groups to prevent another— the essence of the proactive approach

Learning from previous terrorist acts

65

For American law enforcement, terrorist groups fall into two main categories:
1. D_______.
2. O________.

1. Domestic groups.
2. Overseas political/ religious groups.

66

The __________ is a major means of recruiting and advertising hate groups in the United States.

worldwide Internet

67

___________ in local, state, and federal police agencies can easily access this information, locate and infiltrate local hate groups, and keep track of them. Police agencies that refuse to do this are simply irresponsible.

Proactive police intelligence units

68

Lee and Leets ( 2002) surveyed adolescents on the effect of hate Web sites and concluded that they were effective in getting their hate message across but that the effect was _______.

short- lived

69

Proactive Policies for Combating Terrorism
4. Proactive police _________and _______ for terrorist attacks have to be in place, and private and public agencies should be at the same or better level as _______ in time of war. Much of this civil defense, critical incident, and disaster planning is already in place. These plans need to be shared with other police agencies.

defensive and offensive coordination and plans

civil defense

70

Proactive Policies for Combating Terrorism:
1. _________ must share terrorism intelligence with state and local police agencies whenever there is a local credible threat. The objective is to _________ in preventing future terrorism and create a standardized warning system that will work all the way down to the beat cop.

National authorities

involve local police agencies

71

Proactive Policies for Combating Terrorism:

2. ________ must be given the authority to deal with foreign- based terrorist threats within their jurisdiction.

Local police

72

Proactive Policies for Combating Terrorism:

3. An ________ must be created in every major police agency. It should also coordinate the protection of _________. Local and state police budgets will have to be part of the ___________and federal training resources.

office of intelligence

major terrorist targets

federal homeland defense funding

73

Protection of the __________ should be part of the planning agenda for every police department.

community infrastructure

74

Critical infrastructure includes b______, p______, and e_______, including n_______.

bridges, power lines, and electric generation plants, including nuclear plants

75

James K. Kallstrom, a special adviser to a state governor on counterterrorism immediately following 9/ 11, recommended a “p_____, d_____, r_____, and r______” approach when considering a terrorist attack.
He is especially concerned with a _______....

“prevention, detection, response, and recovery”

cyberattack

76

________ and _________will give the American civilian police forces a way of professionally and democratically protecting our local community from future terrorist acts.

Coordination and communication

77

Ten crime- control and quality- of- life strategies were developed over the years (Using Compstat in NYC). The following revisions apply those strategies to a more general audience:
1. Get _____.
2. Curb _______.
3. Drive ______.
4. Break the cycle of _____.
5. Reclaim _____.
6. Reduce ______.
7. Root out _______.
8. Reclaim ________.
9. Heighten c_____, p______ and r_____.
10. Bring ___________.

1. Get guns off the streets.
2. Curb youth violence in the schools and on the streets.
3. Drive drug dealers out of the city.
4. Break the cycle of domestic violence.
5. Reclaim public spaces.
6. Reduce auto-related crime.
7. Root out corruption and build integrity.
8. Reclaim the roads of the city.
9. Heighten courtesy, professionalism, and respect.
10. Bring fugitives to justice.

78

In New York, the responsibility, authority, and resources for carrying out these policies were brought down to the ______ level, and the supervisors were evaluated using data from the Compstat computer program. Organizational lines were flattened, and the command structure was brought down to the ______ level.

supervisor’s

borough

79

Operations at every level must be guided by the four steps of Compstat:
• Accurate and timely _______ that is clearly communicated to all
• Rapid, concentrated, and synchronized ______
• Effective _____ and _____.
• Relentless _______ and _______.

intelligence

deployment

tactics and strategies

follow- up and assessment

80

As a planning tool, ________combined with the principles of _______ can redesign police departmental structures and operations.

computer mapping

reengineering