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Flashcards in Chp 8 Patrol Operations/Community Policy Deck (180):
1

***START***
The increased use of _____ and ______ has changed the face of patrol operations.

technology and research

2

The advent of the ____ systems has drastically changed citizens’ access to law enforcement services. A ______ driven department may find itself totally reactive with no time for special programs and citizen interaction approaches such as community policing.

911

911-

3

The nation’s police forces have moved beyond random patrol. This began with the conclusions from ___________ that showed the ineffectiveness of random patrol and rapid response. “ The results showed that neither crime rates nor citizens’ perception of their safety were significantly affected by changes in the amount of random preventive patrol.

two Kansas City, Missouri, studies

4

A major question in police management is how to _________ so that they do not overwhelm scarce police resources. The Police Executive Research Forum developed a ___________ in which trained dispatchers coded all police calls as “ critical” or “ noncritical.” Noncritical calls were “ stacked” by order of importance or threat to personal safety and citizens were asked to file reports, and critical calls were answered immediately.

control certain calls

Differential Police Response System

5

In fact, while direct authorized position from Community Oriented Policing Services ( COPS) has been stagnant over the past four years, there was a ___.9% increase in funding requests from COPS from 2012 to 2013 ( US Department of Justice, 2013 ).

45.9 percent

6

TRADITIONAL MODEL
Police patrol continues to consist of the following activities: calls for assistance, patrol officer– initiated activity, p______, and a________.

preventive patrol, and administrative activities

7

TRADITIONAL MODEL
The practice of cruising is _______ patrol .

preventive

8

TRADITIONAL MODEL
In the public’s mind, and perhaps reinforced by television, the patrol officer and his or her partner cruise an area, answer a few calls, and occasionally spot a suspicious person or vehicle, leading to a spectacular arrest. The practice of cruising is preventive patrol . The rationale behind this is that the deployment of various foot and patrol units can prevent and deter criminal activ-ity. While many officers would like to roam an area in the manner just described, actual preventive patrol depends on numerous variables, such as n______in a reported area, p_______trouble spots ,h_______patterns at certain times, and the whimsy of the _____and his or her_____.




.


such as the number of crimes in a reported area, potential or consistent trouble spots, heavy traffic patterns at certain times, and the whimsy of the officer and his or her supervisor.

9

TRADITIONAL MODEL In large departments, assigned sectors are strictly maintained or jealously guarded by officers and supervisors. Patrol units are not allowed to go beyond their designated sectors except when dispatched or in “ hot” pursuit. Preventive patrol time is also spent goofing off, going on personal errands, having coffee, or meeting other patrol units to share gossip. In smaller departments, the same runs true. The great difference is that the patrol unit( s) on duty is supposed to ________

stay within the jurisdiction and not venture outside village or town limits.

10

TRADITIONAL MODEL On receiving a call, the patrol unit is supposed to suspend preventive patrol and respond to a location. Calls for both criminal and noncriminal matters account for __ to __ percent of all patrol time, which, of course, depends on the size of the sector, economic conditions ( e. g., inner city versus suburban middle- class neighborhood), and the number of units available for the entire jurisdiction during that shift.

25 to 40

11

TRADITIONAL MODEL Incorporated with preventive patrol are officer- initiated activities. These include questioning ______, stopping _____, operating ____, _____, or other speed enforcement technology, or conducting informal community service activities ( e. g., talking to businesspeople or schoolchildren or making unassigned business checks).

suspicious individuals
vehicles
radar, laser

12

TRADITIONAL MODEL Officer- initiated activities account for only__percent of patrol time, although this figure may be higher during early morning tours of duty when there are few calls.

14

13

TRADITIONAL MODEL Administrative tasks consume large blocks of time during all shifts, but especially during regular business hours from 9: 00 a. m . to 5: 00 p. m ., when a majority of non– law enforcement work force is operating. Tasks of this nature include _____transport, writing ______, appearance in ______, and vehicle _______.

prisoner
reports
court
maintenance

14

THE KANSAS CITY STUDY: While many departments continue with traditional patrol in the manner just described, a few major urban departments began experimenting with new patrol tactics around the beginning of ___. One often- cited study is the so- called Kansas City Study conducted by the Kansas City, Missouri, Police Department and the Police Foundation.The general hypotheses of preventive patrol were tested by dividing the southern portion of the city into ___police beats.

1970
15

15

THE KANSAS CITY STUDY: The general hypotheses of preventive patrol were tested by dividing the southern portion of the city into 15 police beats. These 15 beats were then divided into five groups, each group having three matched beats. For these matched groups, there was one in which patrol was _______, a second beat in which patrol was _______except for calls for service, and a control beat in which patrol _____.

greatly increased
eliminated altogether
continued at the same pace as before the experiment.

16

THE KANSAS CITY STUDY: As Wilson ( 1975 : 109) reports, After a year, ________among the three areas were observed in criminal activity, amount of reported crime, rate of victimization as revealed in the follow-up survey, level of citizen fear, or degree of citizen satisfaction with the police. In addition, ______ was found to have increased in the second and the control beats, whereas it decreased somewhat in the beat where patrol was greatly increased. Today, many researchers and police administrators continue to discuss these conclusions. There have been many criticisms of this experiment because of its faulty experimental design and methodology. Nevertheless, this experiment opened the door for further discussion of the benefits of preventive patrol and the hypothesis that random patrol may be a waste of time

no substantial differences
citizen satisfaction

17

THE KANSAS CITY STUDY: Further issues were raised by a second experiment conducted in Kansas City in 1977 to study the relationship between response time and crime. The orthodox notion of police patrol maintains that crime will decrease if _______

the police are quick to arrive on the scene.

18

THE KANSAS CITY STUDY
Further issues were raised by a second experiment conducted in Kansas City in 1977 to study the relationship between response time and crime. The orthodox notion of police patrol maintains that crime will decrease if the police are quick to arrive on the scene. The study found that since citizens generally take too long to report crime, _______has nothing to do with the number of arrests and the rate of crime. Moreover, for nonemergency calls, there were few citizen complaints of the police taking their time to respond to calls as long as the ______________.

response time

dispatchers advised the complainant of what to expect in terms of estimated time of arrival for the patrol

19

TRADITIONAL MODEL Although this model was developed in the 1970s, Table 8- 1 conceptualizes some of the current problems that police administrators must deal with when they attempt to improve patrol operations. The general goal for improvement is to ( 1) reduce a _____, p_______patrol, and c_____and ( 2) add to time spent on d_______-.

1) reduce administration, preventive patrol, and calls for assistance
2)directed patrol and crime analysis related to directed patrol

20

Preventive Patrol
Although preventive patrol takes ___ percent of an officer’s time, it is the crux on which modern police practice rests.

40

21

Preventive Patrol
There are several reasons why patrol units are mobile and do not stay in a garage and respond as needed in the fire- department fashion. These are the objectives of preventive patrol: • D____• A______• R______• Maintaining a sense of public s_____and c______ in the police for the community • Satisfying public demands for n_______

Detecting crime • Apprehending criminal offenders • Recovering stolen property • Maintaining a sense of public security and confidence in the police for the community • Satisfying public demands for noncriminal services

22

Preventive Patrol Objectives:
These objectives raise many questions. For example, preventive patrol may really have nothing to do with detecting crime and apprehending criminal offenders. In reality, most arrests that occur “ in progress” within a few minutes after the commission of a crime stem from the ____________.

the police having been at the right place at the right time.

23

Preventive Patrol Objectives:
These objectives raise many questions. For example, preventive patrol may really have nothing to do with detecting crime and apprehending criminal offenders. In reality, most arrests that occur “ in progress” within a few minutes after the commission of a crime stem from the police having been at the right place at the right time. The same may be true of the issue of deterrence. While many administrators assume that police presence suggests a higher probability that criminals will not commit crimes, there is little evidence to suggest that ______leads to this objective.

traditional patrol practice

24

Preventive Patrol Objectives:
While many administrators assume that police presence suggests a higher probability that criminals will not commit crimes, there is little evidence to suggest that traditional patrol practice leads to this objective. The basis for this objective rests with the assumption that criminals are _________and view these patrols as a serious hindrance to the commission of a crime. In reality, many crimes are ______enterprises that lack long- term planning. In other cases, criminal activity occurs under the eyes of the police in certain areas that are ________. For example, drug sales on the street in large metropolitan areas may go on uninterrupted even as a police cruiser passes by.

are always on the lookout for police patrols

spontaneous

high- crime districts

25

Preventive Patrol Objectives:
While many administrators assume that police presence suggests a higher probability that criminals will not commit crimes, there is little evidence to suggest that traditional patrol practice leads to this objective. Arrest data are often used to back up this assumption by way of crime clearance rates. Patrol is then deemed effective or ineffective on the basis of _______in a certain area. However, even the freshman criminal justice student knows that crime rates are affected by a number of factors that have nothing to do with police presence ( e. g., family situation, economics, and immigration). In short, we do not have ________ for evaluating the effect of patrol tactics.

apprehensions
satisfactory means

26

Preventive Patrol
While recovery of stolen property is cited as an objective of patrol, the fact is that stolen property is usually recovered by _________rather than by the uniformed patrol presence. The only exception to this might be stolen automobiles. But even with a stolen auto, the recovery most often occurs because of the careless driving habits of the offender. It is rare for an officer to recover a stolen vehicle as a result of spotting the license plates or vehicle description, although license plate readers mounted on patrol cars are increasing success rates.

investigators following up on a case

27

Preventive Patrol
If anything, patrol often is a _______exercise. In essence, the citizen sees the patrol vehicle cruise by and may therefore perceive that the police are “ out there” doing their jobs. Research, however, has shown that other factors have to be taken into consideration before one can conclude that the public is satisfied with the police.

public relations

28

Preventive Patrol
If anything, patrol often is a public relations exercise. In essence, the citizen sees the patrol vehicle cruise by and may therefore perceive that the police are “ out there” doing their jobs. Research, however, has shown that other factors have to be taken into consideration before one can conclude that the public is satisfied with the police. Such factors are overall c____, officer t_______, the level of police c______, and other c______ issues.

overall crime rates, officer treatment of the public, the level of police corruption, and other community issues.

29

Calls for Service
A common assumption made by the American public is that when you call the police, they will _____— no matter how serious the incident may be.

immediately respond

30

Calls for Service
A common assumption made by the American public is that when you call the police, they will immediately respond— no matter how serious the incident may be. Many observers of patrol believe that there may be a need to dispel the tradition that all calls merit immediate response. In fact, perhaps 40 percent of all calls could be handled by ______.

communications personnel

31

Calls for Service
Many departments are starting to use various methodologies to handle complaints other than sending a patrol unit to the scene. Some departments are experimenting with mailed- out forms to collect information on _____of a minor nature and _____.

traffic accidents
petty larcenies

32

Calls for Service
Many departments are starting to use various methodologies to handle complaints other than sending a patrol unit to the scene. One immediate benefit of utilizing these methods involves improving _____-.

officer morale.

33

Calls for Service
Any new method for reducing patrol responses requires a period of public education by way of m ____, c____, and c_______. It will also require the dispatcher or a supervisor of the officer on the street to explain the new procedures to citizens and callers.

media campaigns, civic meetings, and coffee hours.

34

Calls for Service
Another controversial method for reducing the time spent on nonessential calls for assistance by patrol units: S______ simply involves classifying calls in terms of priority, thereby increasing the amount of time that can be allocated for uninterrupted patrol for certain units.

stacking

35

Administrative Tasks
How can we improve the amount of time an officer can spend on crucial tasks? In many cases, the answer requires a revision of existing laws, such as those mandating that the arresting officer must a________. In other instances, the d_____is subject to review and update to cut out unnecessary tasks.

appear at arraignment with a defendant in court the next day

duty manual

36

Administrative Tasks
A basic problem that continues to plague all police officers is paperwork. On average, police agencies use over __ different forms, ranging from arrest reports to motor vehicle accident reports. In fact, the average arrest requires that more than ____ different forms be completed. Computerization has helped and dropdown box report writing software programs have reduced time spent in actual writing. Nevertheless, police departments run on paper reports.

50
10

37

Directed Patrol
When administrative tasks, calls for service, and preventive patrol are reanalyzed, the final objective will be the allocation of greater time for ____ patrol.

directed

38

Directed Patrol
When administrative tasks, calls for service, and preventive patrol are reanalyzed, the final objective will be the allocation of greater time for directed patrol. For our purposes, directed patrol can be defined as the allocation of patrol services in a planned and rational manner. In addition, directed patrol depends on two other variables: c____and s______ design.

crime analysis and shift design

39

Directed Patrol
When administrative tasks, calls for service, and preventive patrol are reanalyzed, the final objective will be the allocation of greater time for directed patrol. For our purposes, directed patrol can be defined as the allocation of patrol services in a p___ and r____ manner. In addition, directed patrol depends on two other variables: crime analysis and shift design.

planned and rational manner

40

CRIME ANALYSIS Too frequently, patrol deployment is made without referral to ____ and ____the crimes are occurring.

when and where

41

CRIME ANALYSIS
Too frequently, patrol deployment is made without referral to when and where the crimes are occurring. Many police personnel prefer to operate by tradition or rule- of-thumb methods rather than rely on ____

crime analysis .

42

CRIME ANALYSIS
At present, crime analysis in the United States ranges from sophisticated crime mapping programs to pin mapping. After pertinent data have been obtained from field reports, arrest sheets, or dispatch logs, the information is collated, analyzed, and then communicated to l _____and f _____. With this information, the patrol supervisor can make rational decisions for deploying staff or devising specialized patrol techniques. Crime ____ has a solid future in crime analysis.

line supervisors and field personnel
mapping

43

SHIFT DESIGN
Many departments have redeployed their patrol personnel based on need rather than on equalization. For example, many agencies have designed the following programs: 9– 40 In this program, the officer works nine hours a day, four days a week, for a total of 36 hours; another four hours are taken up with physical fitness, in- service training, and roll call.
4– 10 and 3– 12 (are covered in another question)

physical fitness, in- service training, and roll call

44

SHIFT DESIGN
Many departments have redeployed their patrol personnel based on need rather than on equalization. For example, many agencies have designed the following programs: 4– 10 In this very common program, the workweek consists of 10 hours a day, four days a week.
9-40 and 3– 12 (are covered in another question)

physical fitness, in- service training, and roll call

45

SHIFT DESIGN
Many departments have redeployed their patrol personnel based on need rather than on equalization. For example, many agencies have designed the following programs: 3– 12 Another shift design consists of officers working ______The required number of work days has to be completed within a specific time period of usually 30 working days.
9-40 and 4-10 (are covered in another question)

12 hours for three days and then having two to three days off

46

SHIFT DESIGN
Crime analysis can be very useful in analyzing workloads by shift or season. At present, police departments often allocate an equal number of officers to each shift, usually three shifts in a 24- hour period. Despite this allocation, all departments realize that criminal activity increases between the hours of ____ and ___, which can present some problems with regard to police operations since officers are unable to perform directed patrol when they have to rush from call to call.

4 p. m. and 2 a. m.

47

SHIFT DESIGN
The main problem with shift redesign in traditional agencies stems from ____ or _____opposition since most officers prefer to have as many weekends off as possible.

union or personnel

48

SHIFT DESIGN
Proponents of 9– 40, 4– 10, and 3– 12 point out that accommodations can be made with weekends off by way of _____.

rotation

49

SHIFT DESIGN
In addition to these 9-40, 4-10, and 3-12 shift programs and other proposed designs, deployment extends beyond the traditional equal shift allocation in that the shifts are redesigned to provide increased coverage between the hours of ____and_____. Agencies on a five- day 40- hour workweek would be able to do the same thing, provided that there were permanent shifts with more personnel being assigned to high- crime hours.

7 p. m. and 1 a. m

50

SPECIALIZED PATROL
In some departments, directed patrol comes under the heading of s____ patrol, where specific units are assigned to a special area ( e. g., burglary squad and undercover squads for inner- city street crime).

specialized

51

SPECIALIZED PATROL:
In some departments, directed patrol comes under the heading of specialized patrol, where specific units are assigned to a special area ( e. g., burglary squad and undercover squads for inner- city street crime). The following tactics are commonly employed by these units: 1. _______, an officer disguised as a “ victim” is assisted by several backup officers. This tactic is used for such crimes as muggings, purse snatchings, and assaults.

Decoys. In decoy squads

52

SPECIALIZED PATROL
In some departments, directed patrol comes under the heading of specialized patrol, where specific units are assigned to a special area ( e. g., burglary squad and undercover squads for inner- city street crime). The following tactics are commonly employed by these units:
2. ________: officers— either physically or by use of electronic equipment— are assigned to a likely target area. Crimes in progress are frequently interrupted.

Stakeouts

53

SPECIALIZED PATROL
In some departments, directed patrol comes under the heading of specialized patrol, where specific units are assigned to a special area ( e. g., burglary squad and undercover squads for inner- city street crime). The following tactics are commonly employed by these units:

3. _______ police personnel watch and follow individuals who are suspected of committing offenses with frequency ( e. g., burglary, robbery, drugs, and organized crime).

Suspect surveillance

54

SPECIALIZED PATROL
In some departments, directed patrol comes under the heading of specialized patrol, where specific units are assigned to a special area ( e. g., burglary squad and undercover squads for inner- city street crime). The following tactics are commonly employed by these units:
4. As with stakeouts, ______is used either against specific criminals or in a wide area with a variety of targets. Some jurisdictions even go so far as to station video cameras on certain high- crime street corners.

general area surveillance

55

SPECIALIZED PATROL
The assignment of a specialized patrol unit to a problem is based on the a_______. Specialized patrol is an example of a proactive system that operates according to a rational plan of crime detection rather than randomly stumbling about waiting for something to happen.

analysis of crime data

56

SPECIALIZED PATROL
Specialized patrol is an example of a proactive system that operates according to a rational plan of crime detection rather than randomly stumbling about waiting for something to happen. Some of the advantages of specialized patrol are as follows:
1. Specific units are assigned to a specific problem so that management knows exactly who is responsible for solving that crime problem.
2. The unit normally exhibits a high degree of t _____ and h_____.
3. There is i________in the specialized area over a period of time, with officers being called on by all members of the department in their area of expertise.
4. A great deal of positive p______might be generated by media attention.

2)teamwork and high morale
3)improved skill development
4)public interest

57

SPECIALIZED PATROL
On the other hand, there are problems with specialized units that affect the whole department. There is always the problem of c______ ( e. g., deciding who is responsible for what problems, like having a burglary unit that may not respond to other street crimes). Officers in regular squads resent the “ _____” specialists who attain glory and prestige while regular patrol has to take care of more mundane matters. This is especially acute in departments where factions operate in a negative fashion. Departmental morale can be destroyed by resentment over specialized units. The use of aggressive enforcement tactics also produces negative public attention. People get upset when stakeout squads use h______weapons to kill robbers. Citizens also complain about a______, particularly the use of video cameras in high- crime areas. While the out-look toward professional law enforcement services is generally positive, serious questions are raised on the use of heavy- handed tactics and technology.

communication
“ hot shot”
heavy- caliber
area surveillance

58

SPECIALIZED PATROL
While the out-look toward professional law enforcement services is generally positive, serious questions are raised on the use of h_____ and t_____

heavy- handed tactics and technology.

59

Foot Patrol
Some police managers feel that _____ patrolling has led to police alienation from neighbor-hoods and loss of a feeling of security that was generated by foot patrol . Foot patrol can have a positive benefit in _____-neighborhoods.

automobile
high- density

60

Foot Patrol
When Newark, New Jersey, and Flint, Michigan, reinstituted foot patrol, these were the results ( Kelling, 1987 ): 1. When foot patrol is added in neighborhoods, levels of fear ______significantly.
2. When foot patrol is withdrawn from neighborhoods, levels of fear _______significantly.
3. Citizen satisfaction with police ______when foot patrol is added in neighborhoods.
4. Police who patrol on foot have a greater appreciation for the v__________than do police who patrol the same area in automobiles.
5. Police who patrol on foot have greater job satisfaction, less fear, and higher morale than officers who patrol in automobiles.

1)decrease
2)increase
3)increase
4)values of the neighborhood residents

61

Foot Patrol
When Newark, New Jersey, and Flint, Michigan, reinstituted foot patrol, these were the results ( Kelling, 1987 ): 1. When foot patrol is added in neighborhoods, levels of fear decrease significantly. 2. When foot patrol is withdrawn from neighborhoods, levels of fear increase significantly. 3. Citizen satisfaction with police increases when foot patrol is added in neighborhoods. 4. Police who patrol on foot have a greater appreciation for the values of the neighborhood residents than do police who patrol the same area in automobiles.
5. Police who patrol on foot have greater j_____, l_____, and h______than officers who patrol in automobiles.

job satisfaction, less fear, and higher morale

62


Foot Patrol
P_______ patrol also brought about fear reduction in Houston. The police started “ to drive through the neighborhoods, knock on doors and chat with pedestrians, thus creating a visible presence” ( Sherman, 1987 ). The major object of these programs is not crime reduction, although this has happened in some cases. Foot patrol and personal- contact patrol do increase a _______by citizens and lower the ____

Personal- contact
feeling of security
fear of crime.

63

Bicycle Patrol
As with any other function, bike patrols require a great deal of _____ with regard to equipment, training, personnel needs, and supervision.

planning

64

Bicycle Patrol
Training programs include topics such as bike n_____, proper r___ and e____, emergency response, tactical pursuit, and safety in such areas as woods, stairways, and shopping malls.

nomenclature-- to define or choose names for something
riding and equipment

65

Bicycle Patrol
Training programs include topics such as bike nomenclature, proper riding and equipment, e_______,t______,and s______in such areas as woods, stairways, and shopping malls.

emergency response,
tactical pursuit,
and safety

66

Bicycle Patrol
The bicycle patrols used by public safety agencies today provide the following benefits:
1. Increased interaction between officers and the c_____
2. Access to r____ or v______locations
3. Improved p______for participants.

1)community
2)remote or vehicle- inaccessible
3) physical fitness

67

Bicycle patrols should not be viewed as a s_____ function but rather as a part of normal assignment dependent on weather and climate considerations.

specialized

68

TEAM POLICING
In the _____, the concept of team policing received considerable attention by criminal justice educators, planners, and practitioners. It was seen as a possible solution to the major problems faced by many American police departments: ( 1) poor police– community relations, ( 2) duplication of effort, ( 3) the rise of crime, and ( 4) the increasing costs of police budgets.

1960s

69

TEAM POLICING
In the 1960s, the concept of team policing received considerable attention by criminal justice educators, planners, and practitioners. It was seen as a possible solution to the major problems faced by many American police departments: ( 1) poor ____relations,
( 2) ______of effort,
( 3) the rise of ____, and
( 4) the increasing _______.

1)police– community
2)duplication
3)crime
4)costs of police budgets

70

TEAM POLICING
Team policing involves decentralizing the existing police organizational structure and reorganizing services into _________.

specific subunits

71

Team policing involves decentralizing the existing police organizational structure and reorganizing services into specific subunits. These subunits are usually based on g______, e_____, and other s____ boundaries found in particular communities. In each subunit, the team is charged with the allocation of patrol, investigation, and other police services and programs, according to the needs of the community.

geographic, ethnic, and other socioeconomic

72

Team policing involves decentralizing the existing police organizational structure and reorganizing services into specific subunits. These subunits are usually based on geographic, ethnic, and other socioeconomic boundaries found in particular communities. In each subunit, the team is charged with the a_____, i_____ , and other p______according to the needs of the community.

allocation of patrol, investigation, and other police services and programs

73

Some vestiges of team policing remain in _____policing.

community

74

History of Team Policing
The concept of team policing originated in Aberdeen, _____, in the late ____ as an experiment to counteract low morale and boredom experienced by single officers patrolling quiet areas.

Scotland
1940s

75

History of Team Policing
The concept of team policing originated in Aberdeen, Scotland, in the late 1940s as an experiment to counteract low morale and boredom experienced by single officers patrolling quiet areas. A change was made from the one- unit, one- beat method of patrol to teams of _______(Sherman, 1976 : xiii).

5 or 10 patrolling an area divided according to the concentration of crime and calls for service

76

History of Team Policing
In the _____, the urban and campus unrest of the _____brought forth renewed interest in police patrol tactics and police– community relations. It was generally concluded that a gap had developed between the police and the public.

United States
1960s

77

History of Team Policing
In the United States, the urban and campus unrest of the 1960s brought forth renewed interest in police patrol tactics and police– community relations. It was generally concluded that a gap had developed between the police and the public. This was due to the decline of the _______and the abandonment of many _______in favor of centralization.

neighborhood foot patrol officer
precinct stations

78

History of Team Policing
In the United States, the urban and campus unrest of the 1960s brought forth renewed interest in police patrol tactics and police–community relations. It was generally concluded that a gap had developed between the police and the public. This was due to the decline of the neighborhood foot patrol officer and the abandonment of many precinct stations in favor of centralization. The ____(?year) Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice recommended that agencies introduce team policing as a means to lessen this gap. Team policing was also expected to increase community involvement in c _______ and d_____

1967
crime prevention and detection.

79

Positive Aspects of Team Policing
The positive aspects of team policing are as follows:
1. The _______become more personal to the community, and in return the relations between the police and the community are improved.
2. Team policing provides a ______structure for its members in that innovation is made possible and professionalism is increased through the development of shared knowledge and peer review.
3. Patrol and investigatory functions are merged into one task, thus eliminating the social barriers of communication and status conflict between uniformed and plainclothes personnel.
4. A reduction is attained in the chain of command in that decision making is done by super-visors and operating personnel.
5. Each member of the team is given a chance to utilize discretion and enhance personal skills. As a result, greater work satisfaction is expected.

1)police services rendered by the team
2)flexible

80

Positive Aspects of Team Policing
The positive aspects of team policing are as follows:
3. Patrol and investigatory functions are merged into one task, thus eliminating the s______ and s_______between uniformed and plainclothes personnel.
4. A reduction is attained in _______in that decision making is done by supervisors and operating personnel.

3)social barriers of communication and status conflict
4)the chain of command

81

Positive Aspects of Team Policing
The positive aspects of team policing are as follows:
5. Each member of the team is given a chance to utilize _____ and enhance ______-. As a result, greater work satisfaction is expected.

utilize discretion and enhance personal skills

82

Team Policing and Tactical Patrol
Team policing is often confused with tactical patrol techniques. Tactical patrol deals with _________. Examples of this type of enforcement are robberies, murders, muggings, and purse snatchings occurring in a routine manner, in a specific geographic area. With team policing, emphasis is placed on territorial exclusivity, maintaining stable and close ties with the citizens of the neighborhood, participation in planning and management, and an orientation toward results in presenting the police mission ( Edgar et al., 1976 : v).

selective law enforcement for a specific problem in the area.

83

Team Policing and Tactical Patrol
Team policing is often confused with tactical patrol techniques. Tactical patrol deals with selective law enforcement for a specific problem in the area. Examples of this type of enforcement are robberies, murders, muggings, and purse snatchings occurring in a routine manner, in a specific geographic area. With team policing, emphasis is placed on territorial _____, maintaining stable and close ties with the ________-, participation in ____and_____, and an orientation toward results in presenting the ______( Edgar et al., 1976 : v).

territorial exclusivity, maintaining stable and close ties with the citizens of the neighborhood, participation in planning and management, and an orientation toward results in presenting the police mission

84

PROBLEM- ORIENTED POLICING In 1979, H_____G_____ proposed what he described as a problem- oriented approach to law enforcement.

Herman Goldstein

85

In the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, police managers, faced with more and more personnel with college degrees, attempted a number of approaches at improving job satisfaction, task forces, quality circles, and management by objectives. ______( POP) is another one of these approaches that utilize the educated police force in a more proactive manner.

Problem- oriented policing

86

PROBLEM- ORIENTED POLICING
According to the authors, traditional police patrol is a ______system where police departments deliver services by “ reacting to individual events reported by citizens gathering information from victims, witnesses, and offenders; involving the criminal justice process and using aggregate crime statistics to evaluate performance” ( Spelman and Eck, 1987a : 3).

reactive

87

PROBLEM- ORIENTED POLICING
In Newport News, Virginia, police were trained in a four- stage approach:
1. S______. Identify major problems ( e. g., burglaries in an apartment complex, thefts from autos downtown, and prostitution- related robberies).
2. A_____. Collect and analyze information from a variety of public and private resources, not just from police data.
3. R_____. Work with other agencies and the public to tailor actions suitable to the problem.
4. A_____. Evaluate the effectiveness of the actions to see whether the problem was alleviated or solved.

1. Scanning
2. Analysis
3. Response
4. Assessment

88

PROBLEM- ORIENTED POLICING
What is important is that the community is involved in solving problems, whether these are drug deals, stolen bicycles, or loud- noise complaints. The basic tenets of Goldstein’s article were later incorporated into a full discussion in his book _______ ( title and year). The term is often used interchangeably with community- oriented policing ( COP) , but there are some basic theoretical differences between the two.

Problem- Oriented Policing ( 1990)

89

What problem- oriented policing does is provide a planning model for dealing with specific issues in the wider view of _________. Today, POP is a component part of what __________has become, in that the police and communities work together to identify problem areas, considering effective ways to address them, and then assess results.

community policing
community policing

90

COMMUNITY POLICING ___and____( 1982 ) published an article titled “ Broken Windows,” which captured the attention of police administrators.

James Q. Wilson and George L. Keating

91

COMMUNITY POLICING
James Q. Wilson and George L. Keating ( 1982 ) published an article titled “ Broken Windows,” which captured the attention of police administrators. They described how Philip Zimbardo, a noted sociologist at Stanford University, placed an abandoned car in a tough Bronx neighbor-hood and another abandoned vehicle in a wealthy area in Palo Alto, California. The vehicle in the Bronx was immediately vandalized and became a stripped hulk within a week. The car in Palo Alto remained untouched until Professor Zimbardo intentionally broke its window. The vehicle was then stripped of usable parts by vandals. Kelling and Wilson used this field experiment to present the idea that ____ attract crime and fear.

run- down neighborhoods

92

COMMUNITY POLICING
Kelling and Wilson used this field experiment to present the idea that run- down neighborhoods attract crime and fear. They recommended ____in tough neighborhoods. The idea was not to simply reduce crime but to have a police presence to make people feel safer.

foot patrol

93

COMMUNITY POLICING
One of the major differences between the reactive patrolling of the 911 police force and community- oriented policing is that community- oriented policing can become ____.

proactive.

94

COMMUNITY POLICING
By working closely with citizens, police can ____and____crime. Community policing, when done right, is one of the most proactive programs that a professional police department can adopt.

anticipate and prevent crime

95

Traditional Policing and Community Policing Compared
In the past, when ____________, we had a form of community policing. Now that police are barricaded inside their police vehicles, reacting to citizen calls only after a crime has taken place, we have the opposite of community policing.

officer walked a beat visiting neighbors and businesses daily

96

Traditional Policing and Community Policing Compared
In the past, when an officer walked a beat visiting neighbors and businesses daily, we had a form of community policing. Now that police are _________, we have the opposite of community policing.

barricaded inside their police vehicles, reacting to citizen calls only after a crime has taken place

97

Traditional Policing and Community Policing Compared
Working with the community outside such bars to stop drunken people from driving would be both community- oriented policing and proactive policing.

community- oriented
proactive

98

Traditional Policing and Community Policing Compared
To summarize Table 8- 3 , community police consider themselves part of the public they serve. They work proactively by taking steps to eliminate crime and disorder. Community policing focuses on the ______

citizens’ problems and concerns.

99

The Implementation of Community Policing
According to Implementing Community Policing: The Administrative Problem by ____and_____( 1993: 4) , the police reformers who are carrying out community policing are using middle managers, such as the leadership of line operating units and staff units ( e. g., planning and training):

Kelling and Bratton

100

The Implementation of Community Policing
According to Implementing Community Policing: The Administrative Problem by Kelling and Bratton ( 1993: 4) , the police reformers who are carrying out community policing are using ______, such as the leadership of line operating units and staff units ( e. g., planning and training):

middle managers

101

The Implementation of Community Policing
According to Implementing Community Policing: The Administrative Problem by Kelling and Bratton ( 1993: 4) , the police reformers who are carrying out community policing are using middle managers, such as the leadership of line operating units and staff units ( e. g., planning and training): Thus, the solution to the administrative problem in police departments was the establishment of a powerful mid- management group that: 1) extended the reach of ____ throughout police departments and 2) became the locus of the ______. As such, mid- managers became the leading edge in the establishment of centralized control over police departments’ internal environment and organizational operations.

1)chiefs
2)practice and skill base of the occupation

102

The Implementation of Community Policing
To establish useful and sustained change in any police department, police managers must overcome the overwhelming resistance of the ______culture.

established police culture.

103

The Implementation of Community Policing
The research on police culture, from Westley’s ( 1970) dissertation on the Gary, Indiana, Police Department in 1950 to Thibault’s article “ ________,” indicates that police have been socially isolated from the public (minority groups in particular), hostile to the public, threatened by any type of change, and very secretive (Thibault, 1992 ).

The Blue Milieu

104

The Implementation of Community Policing
The old- timers will say, “ I remember that team policing crap. We worked with the community and formed what they would call today quality teams. Well, the chief felt that his power was threatened, and boom! That was the end of team policing.” Only ______has the staying power to convince these officers, who have heard it all, that community policing is a permanent part of law enforcement.

middle management

105

Recommendations for Implementation
How can a police manager decide if community policing is really taking place? The following seven criteria have to be in place:
1. The agenda for police activities must be set by c_______. This means there must be formal ways of finding out what the citizens want, such as surveys and the formal involvement of citizen associations.
2. Middle management must be trained and directly involved in the i______, from inception to final performance. This includes captains, lieutenants, and sergeants.

1)citizens, not by the police administrators
2)implementation of community policing

106

Recommendations for Implementation
How can a police manager decide if community policing is really taking place? The following seven criteria have to be in place:
3. There must be a split force. Community policing has to be protected from 911 service calls so officers have time to interact with citizen associations and to plan mutual problem solving with these citizens. (card already done on 3)
4. Community policing must be a permanent policy of the department, not dependent on g_____, which comes and goes. The policies and philosophy of community policing must be part of standard operating procedures. There must be a permanent reward structure for the implementation of community policing by line officers.
5. Community problem- solving groups are created to i________and e______with police managers.

4)grant money
5)identify problems and explore solutions

107

Recommendations for Implementation
How can a police manager decide if community policing is really taking place? The following seven criteria have to be in place:
6. The p_______must be the major police goal. This policy is intended to stop crime before it happens rather than arrest criminals after citizens have been victimized.
7. Officers must strive to i_______in a community. This is accomplished by preventing crime, fixing broken windows, repairing or tearing down empty buildings, reducing fear in the community, and cleaning up vacant lots.

6.prevention of crime
7.improve the quality of life

108

Recommendations for Implementation
The following seven criteria have to be in place: 1. The agenda for police activities must be set by citizens, not by the police administrators. This means there must be formal ways of finding out what the citizens want, such as surveys and the formal involvement of citizen associations. 2. Middle management must be trained and directly involved in the implementation of community policing, from inception to final performance. This includes captains, lieutenants, and sergeants. 3. There must be a split force. Community policing has to be protected from 911 service calls so officers have time to interact with citizen associations and to plan mutual problem solving with these citizens. 4. Community policing must be a permanent policy of the department, not dependent on grant money, which comes and goes. The policies and philosophy of community policing must be part of standard operating procedures. There must be a permanent reward structure for the implementation of community policing by line officers. 5. Community problem- solving groups are created to identify problems and explore solutions with police managers. 6. The prevention of crime must be the major police goal. This policy is intended to stop crime before it happens rather than arrest criminals after citizens have been victimized. 7. Officers must strive to improve the quality of life in a community. This is accomplished by preventing crime, fixing broken windows, repairing or tearing down empty buildings, reducing fear in the community, and cleaning up vacant lots.
If the policing programs are missing one or more of the seven criteria, they will be considered ______programs or something other than community policing.

public relations

109

Community Policing Reduces Serious Crime
Does community policing work? Evaluation studies are often based on t ____,p____,m_____and m_____

time, place, manner, and maintenance of efforts.

110

Community Policing Reduces Serious Crime
The three major outcomes of community policing are _____and _______, and mixed results concerning crime reduction over the years ( Connel et al., 2008 : 127– 50).

positive attitudes of the community toward policing and positive attitudes of police officers toward their jobs

111

Community Policing Reduces Serious Crime
In the Connel study, officers were responsible for crime in their geographical district and were also evaluated in terms of problem solving, teamwork, and community interaction. The major elements also included accountability, decentralization, and collaboration. Collaboration included business and public institutions representing s_____,p____,and p_____. Decentralization meant that along with the sergeant- in- charge, officers were responsible for the crime in their targeted area. The officers also devised permanent solutions to recurring problems.

schools, parole, and probation

112

Community Policing Reduces Serious Crime
In the Connel study, officers were responsible for crime in their geographical district and were also evaluated in terms of problem solving, teamwork, and community interaction. The major elements also included accountability, decentralization, and collaboration. Collaboration included business and public institutions representing schools, parole, and probation.
______ meant that along with the sergeant- in- charge, officers were responsible for the crime in their targeted area. The officers also devised permanent solutions to recurring problems.

Decentralization

113

Community Policing Reduces Serious Crime
Community policing increases a positive community attitude to the police department and officer morale. What this article adds is a rigorous evaluation over eight years of serious violent and property crime reduction produced by the community policing model. The study above shows some parallels with previous case studies reviewed by the author for St. Petersburg, Florida, Seattle, Washington, and Chicago, Illinois.
1. There is a need for police training in _____ skills.
2. Community policing efforts must focus on problems that the ____has identified.
3. The impact of community policing is _____on both the police and the citizens.
4. Police get the benefit of civilian support in neighborhoods and businesses and support for the police budget.
5. The citizens get to know the police as human beings and as professionals.
6. The citizens see police in a positive light because the police are helping to solve the problems in their neighborhoods.

1) human relations
2)the community
3)positive

114

Community Policing Reduces Serious Crime
Community policing increases a positive community attitude to the police department and officer morale. What this article adds is a rigorous evaluation over eight years of serious violent and property crime reduction produced by the community policing model. The study above shows some parallels with previous case studies reviewed by the author for St. Petersburg, Florida, Seattle, Washington, and Chicago, Illinois.
1. There is a need for police training in human relations skills.
2. Community policing efforts must focus on problems that the community has identified. 3. The impact of community policing is positive on both the police and the citizens.
4. Police get the benefit of civilian support in neighborhoods and businesses and support for the _____.
5. The citizens get to know the police as human beings and as p_____.
6. The citizens see police in a positive light because the __________.

4)police budget
5)professionals
6)police are helping to solve the problems in their neighborhoods

115

Impact of Community Policing

The twenty- first- century police departments throughout the United States have accepted community policing. In 2000, the federal government published a nationwide survey of community policing activities that impacted patrol, crime prevention, and problem solving ( Miller and Hess, 2005 : 472)
1• Gave g______responsibility to patrol
2• Have a c______academy
3• Conduct b_____meeting open to the public
4• Opened n______substations
5• Adopted p_____techniques
6• Developed i________to support problem solving
7• Conduct c_____on a regular basis
8• Decision making occurs in _____ranks
9• Developed e________
10• D______ detectives
11• Changed c________
12• Eliminated ______ranks

1 geographic
2 citizen police
3 beat/ neighborhood
4 neighborhood
5 problem- solving
6 information systems
7 citizen surveys
8 lower
9 evaluation for evaluating success of community policing
10 Decentralized
11 communication center on how citizen calls are handled
12 one or more

116

Impact of Community Policing

he twenty- first- century police departments throughout the United States have accepted community policing. In 2000, the federal government published a nationwide survey of community policing activities that impacted patrol, crime prevention, and problem solving ( Miller and Hess, 2005 : 472) • Gave geographic responsibility to patrol • Have a citizen police academy • Conduct beat/ neighborhood meeting open to the public • Opened neighborhood substations • Adopted problem- solving techniques • Developed information systems to support problem solving • Conduct citizen surveys on a regular basis • Decision making occurs in lower ranks • Developed evaluation for evaluating success of community policing • Decentralized detectives • Changed communication center on how citizen calls are handled • Eliminated one or more ranks This provides a b______definition of community policing.

behavioral

117

Conclusion: Community Policing
Community policing cannot be implemented overnight. It takes t____,t____, r_____, and d_______, but it can be done successfully, as the Seattle experience has demonstrated.

time, training, a restructuring of departmental resources, and daily work with community groups

118

Conclusion: Community Policing
Community policing cannot be implemented overnight. It takes time, training, a restructuring of departmental resources, and daily work with community groups, but it can be done successfully, as the Seattle experience has demonstrated. _____must become involved if the social isolation of the established police culture and the cynicism of the public are to be overcome.

Middle management

119

Conclusion: Community Policing
______and middle managers must be able to see the benefits of community policing, or it will not work.

Line officers

120

Conclusion: Community Policing
We recommend that any agency that truly wants to implement community policing ask ______ to work with their middle managers.

middle managers from a successful program

121

Conclusion: Community Policing
Without some additional resources in terms of new ______, it is very difficult for a reactive police department to implement community- oriented policing. But if you start small, say in one or two neighborhoods, and the people and politicians see that it is actually working, new positions and resources may become available.

civilian and sworn- officer positions

122

Conclusion: Community Policing
Without some additional resources in terms of new civilian and sworn- officer positions, it is very difficult for a reactive police department to implement community- oriented policing. But if you start small, say in one or two neighborhoods, and the people and politicians see that it is actually working, new positions and resources may become available. In the fight for additional resources in these tight- budget times, the best allies of the police are ___________.

involved citizens who have seen community police programs work.

123

Conclusion: Community Policing
The ______ funding of community policing has made community policing efforts successful as permanent institutions in major police departments.

federal

124

Conclusion: Community Policing
The big question is ________ if federal funding support ends completely? While we do not claim to have a crystal ball on this, we feel that since this program has made great inroads in American policing, certain community- specific programs will continue for some time.

to what extent will community policing continue

125

Conclusion: Community Policing
The big question is to what extent will community policing continue if federal funding support ends completely? While we do not claim to have a crystal ball on this, we feel that since this program has made great inroads in American policing, certain community- specific programs will continue for some time. Overall, it has had a _______ impact on police– community relations, which will be important for antiterrorism investigations and community- security enhancement in the next few years.

positive

126

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING
Intelligence to deal with terrorism and major crimes has emerged as an important component of _____. Internationally, intelligence on terrorist activities and military threats is gathered by various agencies, which include the F______,C_____,D_____,B____,and N_____

policing
Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI), the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA), the Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA), the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms ( ATF), and the National Security Agency

127

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING
Since September 11, 2001, agencies dealing with terrorism include the Terrorism T______ (TTIC) and the Terrorist S_____ (TSC) operated by the FBI.

Terrorism Threat Integration Center and the
Terrorist Screening Center

128

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING
The commission that looked into the events of 9/ 11 felt that although much information was known about the terrorists, there was a failure of ________.

intelligence sharing

129

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING
The commission that looked into the events of 9/ 11 felt that although much information was known about the terrorists, there was a failure of intelligence sharing. This finding has led to the creation of a new n ________ to eliminate the bureaucratic rivalries among various federal agencies.

national intelligence coordinator

130

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING
Chief R____ P_____ states that intelligence- based policing has currently shifted toward dealing with major street crimes and gang activity ( personal communication, 2009).

Raymond Philo

131

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING
Chief Raymond Philo states that intelligence- based policing has currently shifted toward dealing with major street crimes and gang activity ( personal communication, 2009). To date, a national intelligence gathering mechanism has been created by the Department of Justice for American policing. Each ______has fusion centers that bring together field- and data- based usable information.

state and major region

132

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Historical Issues
There has been a great deal of civilian _____ of domestic intelligence gathering by law enforcement. During the 1960s, federal and state agencies created domestic intelligence files on antiwar protesters, civil rights activists, peace advocates, and others through the creation of dossiers or files based on people’s names and their associates under the premise that someone might commit a crime. Based on the misuse of these files for ______, a number of laws and policies were created to protect individual civil rights from infringement by unauthorized police investigations.

mistrust
political purposes

133

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Historical Issues
During the 1960s, federal and state agencies created domestic intelligence files on antiwar protesters, civil rights activists, peace advocates, and others through the creation of dossiers or files based on people’s names and their associates under the premise that someone might commit a crime. Based on the misuse of these files for political purposes, a number of laws and policies were created to protect individual civil rights from infringement by unauthorized police investigations. Lawsuits against police also included civil tort actions against intelligence units by persons who had not committed by per-sons who had not committed any crimes. P________led to a separation of national and international intelligence sharing between the FBI and CIA and the prohibition of domestic intelligence operations by the CIA.

Public hearings on the use of dossiers

134

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Historical Issues
The use of intelligence on career criminals, crime suspects, and crime trends did not receive a great deal of serious police attention until the __________ in urban areas in the 1980s.

rise of organized crime and street gang operations

135

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Historical Issues
The events of September 11, 2001, led to the creation of a National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan, which found that there was a natural link between c____and intelligence- led policing.

community policing and intelligence- led policing.

136

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Community Policing and Intelligence
The relationships built by COPS officers lead to a _______that can be used to prevent terrorism and all other related crimes.

number of informational sources

137

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Community Policing and Intelligence
The relationships built by COPS officers lead to a number of informational sources that can be used to prevent terrorism and all other related crimes. Also, crime prevention and educational programs, such as the citizen’s police academy, can focus attention on terrorism issues, emergency preparedness, and volunteer efforts. There is also a need to direct attention to what is called ______, which include drugs, stolen goods, false identity papers, and money transactions.

commodity flows

138

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Community Policing and Intelligence
As described by Carter ( 2004 : 161– 70), the model intelligence process used by the FBI includes the following:
1. I_______. As with problem- oriented policing, information is collected about offenders, victims/ commodities, and locations to begin targeting suspected operations.
2. C______. This is accomplished through interviews, informants, information gathered as a by- product of other investigations, review of data banks, surveillances, and liaison relationships with other law enforcement agencies.
3. P_______. Taking all the raw information, the intelligence personnel try to make some sense of the data through data reduction, translation, and decryption. Both open- source and closed- source information are used. Open- source information is any item available to the general public, such as information on the Internet and in 24- hour news programs. Closed- source data banks and sources are those open only to law enforcement based on clearance classifications. Both kinds of information have to be evaluated for trust-worthiness and reliability before using them to understand a crime pattern.
4. A______. This is the process of converting the information into intelligence for law enforcement purposes. Analysis includes the review of data sets and the use of spread-sheets, mapping programs, statistical programs, and investigative analysis software. Link analysis provides a method of Link analysis provides a method of matching patterns and relationships between individuals and groups.
5. D______. This is the distribution of finished intelligence to the consumers, who can be agency policy makers and other interested parties. Finished intelligence might result in an assessment of a threat, a bulletin that describes a trend, or general information based on raw information.

1. Identification of problem areas
2. Collection of information
3. Processing and exploitation
4. Analysis and production
5. Dissemination

139

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Community Policing and Intelligence
As described by Carter ( 2004 : 161– 70), the model intelligence process used by the FBI includes the following:
3. Processing and exploitation. Taking all the raw information, the intelligence personnel try to make some sense of the data through data reduction, translation, and decryption. Both open- source and closed- source information are used. ________is any item available to the general public, such as information on the Internet and in 24-hour news programs. _______are those open only to law enforcement based on clearance classifications. Both kinds of information have to be evaluated for trust-worthiness and reliability before using them to understand a crime pattern.

Open- source information
Closed- source data banks and sources

140

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Community Policing and Intelligence
As described by Carter ( 2004 : 161– 70), the model intelligence process used by the FBI includes the following:
4. Analysis and production. This is the process of ______for law enforcement purposes. Analysis includes the review of data sets and the use of spread-sheets, mapping programs, statistical programs, and investigative analysis software. Link analysis provides a method of Link analysis provides a method of matching patterns and relationships between individuals and groups.
5. Dissemination. This is the distribution of finished intelligence to the ________. Finished intelligence might result in an assessment of a threat, a bulletin that describes a trend, or general information based on raw information.

4. converting the information into intelligence
5. consumers, who can be agency policy makers and other interested parties

141

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Community Policing and Intelligence
As described by Carter ( 2004 : 161– 70), the model intelligence process used by the FBI includes a key element in Part 2 of the process:
Tactical debriefing simply means that street officers, detectives, and others p________or ________on information related to current or future planned criminal activity such as illegal drugs, guns, homicides, missing persons, stolen property, burglaries, larcenies, or any other criminal activity.

proactively question suspects or engage informants

142

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
The first concern pertains to the intelligence gathering function and who and what groups are to be targeted. The guidelines for this are found in _____, (CFR) which contains the standards for intelligence gathering for both individual and multiagency units.

28 Code of Federal Regulations ( CFR) Part 23

143

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
Intelligence gathering must be initiated only to ______ related to criminal conduct and activities that present a threat to the community.

obtain information

144

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
Intelligence gathering must be initiated only to obtain information related to criminal conduct and activities that present a threat to the community. The guidelines include the need for ________to show that criminal activity is possible by the individual or group.

reasonable suspicion

145

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
Intelligence gathering must be initiated only to obtain information related to criminal conduct and activities that present a threat to the community. The guidelines include the need for reasonable suspicion to show that criminal activity is possible by the individual or group. Information about ____, r_____, or s________ is prohibited unless the group is involved in criminal conduct.

political, religious, or social views of associations

146

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
The intelligence unit _______information acquired in violation of federal, state, or local laws.

cannot gather

147

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
What happens if the information is eventually found to be of no use or untrue? Department intelligence policies also call for closing files where all leads have been _____

exhausted, or where no legitimate law enforcement is served.

148

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
How much and what can be shared is always a topic of continuing controversy in that all agencies have a series of mechanisms that classify information and intelligence based on how sensitive the information is or what damage it could do if obtained by adversaries. These classifications include t _____, s_____, and c_____

top secret, secret, and confidential.

149

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
The types of security clearances and the processes for obtaining security clearances can be obtained from the FBI Web page and other related publications. The purpose of the clearance is to establish a law enforcement agent’s potential for _______; this clearance process involves going through another background check for any criminal record, a credit history check, and interviews with associates.

trustworthiness;

150

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
For general law enforcement use, information can be released according to the following two categories:
1. S_______. This information has been declassified by removing the sources or methods by which the information was obtained. The information is not available to the public.
2. _______( FOUO). The FOUO designation is used by the Department of Homeland Security to identify unclassified information that has an impact on community safety or a person’s privacy.

1. Sensitive but unclassified.
2. For official use only ( FOUO).

151

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
L________departments often have classifications that are restricted, confidential, or unclassified.

Local police

152

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
_________ files include those that contain information that could adversely affect an ongoing investigation or create safety hazards for officers or compromise the identity of confidential informants.
________intelligence is less sensitive and may be released to agency personnel.
______ intelligence is information from news media, public records, and other public sources. The intelligence officer would release the relevant information to officers conducting authorized investigations ( New Hartford Police Department, 2007 ).

Restricted
Confidential
Unclassified

153

INTELLIGENCE- LED POLICING---Managerial Concerns
The challenge faced by police managers is to create an intelligence function that matches the s______, g_____, and c______of their unit or municipality.

size, geography, and complexity of their unit or municipality

154

PREDICTIVE POLICING
With the advent of _______and vast amounts of data that are created from crime reports, traffic stops, license plate readers, intelligence reports, and social media sites, crime analysis has moved into an entirely new dimension.

cloud computing

155

PREDICTIVE POLICING
As discussed by B _____and M______( 2009) , major corporations such as Walmart and Amazon use advanced analytics to stock shelves and address customer trends based on seasonal needs, major events such as storms, and personal buying habits. They report that the same technologies can be applied to policing to address future violent crimes through risk-based deployment.

Beck and McCue

156

PREDICTIVE POLICING
Not everyone is enthralled with predictive policing. Civil libertarians argue that this only brings increased police presence in ________neighborhoods where violent and property crimes are apt to occur (What’s Predictive Policing?, n. d.).

low- income or minority

157

PREDICTIVE POLICING
Not everyone is enthralled with predictive policing. Civil libertarians argue that this only brings increased police presence in low- income or minority neighborhoods where violent and property crimes are apt to occur ( What’s Predictive Policing?, n. d.). As the model is also based on reported crimes, not all offenses become police data such as sex crimes and drug use among the affluent. From a management perspective, there is also the need to have a full- fledged _____unit perhaps on a regional basis that can take various forms of data into use beyond municipal and regional jurisdictional limits.

crime analysis

158

WEED AND SEED In response to a rise in ______and the decline of certain inner- city neighborhoods, the Department of Justice initiated a program in 1991 called Weed and Seed .

drug trafficking

159

WEED AND SEED--- The goals of the program are to address _____and problems associated with ____in high- risk neighborhoods and to provide a safe environment for residents.

violent crime
drug sales

160

According to the U. S. Department of Justice ( n. d.), the key to Weed and Seed is bringing together a host of l_________to “ weed out” criminals in the neighborhood and to bring r_______( seeding) to the area.

law enforcement and community agencies
revitalization services

161

WEED AND SEED
The overall organization of this program is fairly straightforward. Communities with a serious crime problem in a specific neighborhood file an application through the _______. If the application is approved, funding is then given to the city or town executive that filed for the grant. The daily operations of the program are directed by _______, who then create and work with a neighborhood steering committee.

U. S. Attorney’s office

local authorities

162

Each Weed and Seed program is limited to receiving federal funds for _____ years ( Vandecovering, 2006 ).

five

163

Each Weed and Seed program is limited to receiving federal funds for five years ( Vandecovering, 2006 ). Federal funds are then used for additional equipment and resources for a wide number of operations, which can include
• S______ patrols in high- crime neighborhoods
• Creation of operational S______for children
• Saturation patrols coupled with an ______to deal with fire-arms on school grounds
• Hiring additional off- duty police officers to run ______
• Increasing treatment services for neighborhood _____
• _______programs, including the removal of graffiti and vacant buildings in rundown areas
• Classes for f________

Saturation
Safe Haven
anti- gun violence educational program
youth programs
drug addicts
Community beautification
first- time homeowners in obtaining a mortgage

164

The key to the success or failure of a Weed and Seed program is the extent to which the steering committee is able to f________and a_______over time.

function and achieve measurable results

165

HOT SPOTS
L_____S_____found something very special while analyzing domestic violence calls to the police. He found that “ chronically violent couples can be identified and predicted [ and] chronic locations of domestic calls can be predicted”

Lawrence Sherman

166

HOT SPOTS
In “ Repeat Calls for Service: Policing Hot Spots,” Sherman noted, “ ______ percent of the 115,000 addresses and intersections in Minneapolis were the subject of 50 percent of the 321,174 calls to police” (1989: 150).

Three

167

HOT SPOTS
With a good data- analysis management system tied into the 911 system, a proactive plan for policing hot spots can be created. There are a number of issues:
1. Specific names are needed for s_____.
2. A c______ must be created for the definition of a “ chronic location.”
3. The calls have to be c_____. False alarm calls and lockouts would have policy implications in some jurisdictions, while domestic violence and burglary would be important in other jurisdictions.
4. An a_____ plan must be formulated and implemented.
5. An e_____must be implemented.

1.specific locations
2.criterion
3.categorized
4.action
5.evaluation

168

HOT SPOTS
With a good data- analysis management system tied into the 911 system, a proactive plan for policing hot spots can be created. There are a number of issues:
2. A criterion must be created for the definition of a “ chronic location.” An example would be setting a threshold for the number of calls for police service to an address in a certain time period, such as “ over 25 calls to one address in a 12 month period.” In this case, the twenty- sixth call would trigger the chronic location designation. The policy could also state how long an address has to go without a call for police service before it could have the designation removed. The ______would determine the criterion.

size of the population

169

HOT SPOTS
With a good data- analysis management system tied into the 911 system, a proactive plan for policing hot spots can be created. There are a number of issues:
5. An evaluation must be implemented. A useful evaluation combines s_____ related to charges in the number of calls per location and a q_____ given to people at the hot spots. The evaluation should also take into account any new hot spots created by the displacement of crimes.

statistics
questionnaire

170

HOT SPOTS
Can focusing on hot spots work? Yes, if there is good analysis with a good police team involved in the planning and implementation efforts. It is better to focus on a _______than to spread the police resources too thin. It will also work with the help of other _______, including liquor licensing authorities, the telephone company, department of health, and public housing agencies.

few hot spots with an experienced team
public and private agencies

171

POLICE PURSUIT POLICIES
As a result of ______, most departments have restrictive pursuit polices that center on the seriousness of the offense and the ability of a supervisor to call off the pursuit.

public and civil lawsuits

172

POLICE PURSUIT POLICIES
Given the high property and personal damages in pursuit driving, p_____ police managers should create the most restrictive written pursuit policies in situations involving serious felonies.

proactive police managers

173

POLICE PURSUIT POLICIES
If officers’ and citizens’ lives and property are put at risk, the pursuit reason should be more serious than a r_____

routine traffic violation

174

CONCLUSION:
____is the most visible function in police operations.

Patrol

175

CONCLUSION
The concept of preventive patrol has come under great scrutiny based on the cost of ___and _____ and the seeming non-effect it has on crime incidents.

vehicles and personnel

176

CONCLUSION
Various studies and experimental programs have concluded that patrol should be directed to certain areas based on criminal activity and that all citizen calls do not merit a ______response time.

two- minute

177

CONCLUSION
The need for ______ and ______forms the basis for community- and problem-oriented policing.

increased police presence and for new ways to address fundamental crime problems

178

CONCLUSION
Some writers on community policing refer to community policing as the p_____ and to problem-oriented policing as an a_________.

philosophy
analytic tool for dealing with the causes of crime

179

CONCLUSION
The key players for any change are ___and ____personnel in the department, which can be a difficult process in view of our discussion on police subculture.

line and middle- management

180

Crime analysis can be very useful in analyzing workloads by _______ or _________.

Shift or season