Chp 12 Human Resources Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chp 12 Human Resources Management Deck (79):
1

Sexual harassment consists of the following:
1. __________
2. An employee makes unwelcome sexual advances toward another employee in the form of pressure for dates, stalking, love letters, and calls.
3. Activities or behavior by one or more employees creates a hostile work environment for the complainant regardless of the loss of economic or tangible job benefits. These activities might include pranks, jokes, and comments of a sexual nature.

1. The supervisor demands sexual consideration in exchange for job benefit.

2

Sexual harassment consists of the following:
1. The supervisor demands sexual consideration in exchange for job benefit.
2. ____________
3. Activities or behavior by one or more employees creates a hostile work environment for the complainant regardless of the loss of economic or tangible job benefits. These activities might include pranks, jokes, and comments of a sexual nature.

2. An employee makes unwelcome sexual advances toward another employee in the form of pressure for dates, stalking, love letters, and calls.

3

Sexual harassment consists of the following:
1. The supervisor demands sexual consideration in exchange for job benefit.
2. An employee makes unwelcome sexual advances toward another employee in the form of pressure for dates, stalking, love letters, and calls.
3. __________

3. Activities or behavior by one or more employees creates a hostile work environment for the complainant regardless of the loss of economic or tangible job benefits. These activities might include pranks, jokes, and comments of a sexual nature.

4

The hostile work environment standard, however, is very complex and often depends on ___________

the pattern of behavior in the work environment.

5

We suggest that sexual harassment is a problem that must be continually addressed through ______, _______, _____, and __________.

training seminars, roll- call training, depart-mental advisories, and efficient complaint/ resolution procedures

6

Drug testing for police personnel became widely used in the _________in response to the wide-spread use of illegal substances by citizens coupled with the dramatic rise of drug- related police corruption cases.

mid- 1980s

7

Perhaps the most profound are those life- and- death implications for drug enforcement officers who are ____________

compromised or threatened by fellow officers “ bought” by drug dealers.

8

The Bureau of Justice Statistics ( 2003) reports that nearly _______ of all local police departments have some form of drug testing for recruit officers.

85 percent

9

Departments that have drug screening may use one or a combination of the following programs:
1. __________
2. Mandatory testing for all preemployment applicants.
3. Testing for preservice and in- service officers based on reasonable suspicion that the person is using illegal substances.
4. Testing of officers being considered for sensitive assignments, such as narcotics enforcement, helicopter operations, explosives, and special weapons and tactics 5. Voluntary testing by officers to show that they are above reproach Legally, drug screening is based on the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments regarding searches and procedural due process.

1. Random testing for all personnel on a routine basis

10

Departments that have drug screening may use one or a combination of the following programs:
1. Random testing for all personnel on a routine basis
2. ____________
3. Testing for preservice and in- service officers based on reasonable suspicion that the person is using illegal substances.
4. Testing of officers being considered for sensitive assignments, such as narcotics enforcement, helicopter operations, explosives, and special weapons and tactics 5. Voluntary testing by officers to show that they are above reproach Legally, drug screening is based on the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments regarding searches and procedural due process.


2. Mandatory testing for all preemployment applicants.

11

Departments that have drug screening may use one or a combination of the following programs:
1. Random testing for all personnel on a routine basis
2. Mandatory testing for all preemployment applicants.
3. ___________
4. Testing of officers being considered for sensitive assignments, such as narcotics enforcement, helicopter operations, explosives, and special weapons and tactics 5. Voluntary testing by officers to show that they are above reproach Legally, drug screening is based on the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments regarding searches and procedural due process.

3. Testing for preservice and in- service officers based on reasonable suspicion that the person is using illegal substances.

12

Departments that have drug screening may use one or a combination of the following programs:
1. Random testing for all personnel on a routine basis
2. Mandatory testing for all preemployment applicants.
3. Testing for preservice and in- service officers based on reasonable suspicion that the person is using illegal substances.
4. ____________
5. Voluntary testing by officers to show that they are above reproach Legally, drug screening is based on the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments regarding searches and procedural due process.

4. Testing of officers being considered for sensitive assignments, such as narcotics enforce-ment, helicopter operations, explosives, and special weapons and tactics

13

Departments that have drug screening may use one or a combination of the following programs:
1. Random testing for all personnel on a routine basis
2. Mandatory testing for all preemployment applicants.
3. Testing for preservice and in- service officers based on reasonable suspicion that the person is using illegal substances.
4. Testing of officers being considered for sensitive assignments, such as narcotics enforcement, helicopter operations, explosives, and special weapons and tactics 5. ____________

5. Voluntary testing by officers to show that they are above reproach Legally, drug screening is based on the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments regarding searches and procedural due process.

14

Legally, drug screening is based on the ________ and _______ Amendments regarding searches and procedural due process.

Fourth and Fourteenth

15

By the end of the 1980s, both the U. S. Supreme Court and higher state courts ruled on the legality of certain kinds of searches related to drug testing. The most noted case was ____________ , in which the Supreme Court decided that drug testing undertaken for railroad workers after accidents and safety violations constituted a search within the confines of the Fourth Amendment.

Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives Association ( 1989)

16

In 1988, the Police Executive Research Forum surveyed police chiefs around the country. The following are the policies the chiefs favored:
• Drug testing if _______existed to suspect an officer using drugs ( 87.7 percent)
• Drug screening of _______( 76.4 percent)
• Regular drug testing of officers during __________( 66 percent)
• Random drug testing of officers in _______( 64.7 percent)

• Drug testing if reasonable grounds existed to suspect an officer using drugs ( 87.7 percent)
• Drug screening of police applicants ( 76.4 percent) • Regular drug testing of officers during probationary period ( 66 percent)
• Random drug testing of officers in “ sensitive” positions ( 64.7 percent)

17

Police unions favor drug and alcohol abuse policies geared toward __________

rehabilitation, with sanctions as a last resort.

18

The most common screening procedure used at this time is urine testing by way of the ________ technique ( EMIT).

enzyme multiplied immunoassay
(a urine sample is analyzed for the presence of a single substance or a class of drugs or metabolites by separating the various enzymes.)

19

The use of EMIT suggests only the _____________.

presence of a substance; it does not show quantity and level of impairment.

20

As Connors ( 1989 : 165) suggests, there must be further testing and investigation through _______and _______ to address the problem of “ false positives.”

gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

21

The key elements in screening procedures are the safeguards used in this testing, including such variables as the q_____, c_________, t__________, and the t______________.

quality of equipment, chain of custody of evidence, training of personnel administering the test, and the test site procedures.

22

In 1988, the ____________was signed into law. It requires employers with federal con-tracts in excess of $ 25,000 to certify that they will provide a drug- free workplace through the following: ( 1) providing publications and education about drug awareness, ( 2) requiring notification to the employer by the employee if he or she is arrested for criminal violations occurring in the workplace, ( 3) requiring convicted employees to participate in a drug abuse assistance or rehabilitation program, and ( 4) notifying employees of possible sanctions that might be taken against them by the company.

Federal Drug Free Workplace Act

23

Contract Police Issues
Albert Reiss Jr. ( 1988 : 9) produced three models of secondary employment that are still useful today.
1. _____________
2. The union brokerage model . An officer’s union or association brokers the employment for its members so that they need not search for their own job and negotiate pay.
3. The department contract model .

1. The officer contract model . Each officer is a principal who independently contracts with an employer for a particular job.

24

Contract Police Issues
Albert Reiss Jr. ( 1988 : 9) produced three models of secondary employment that are still useful today.
1. The officer contract model . Each officer is a principal who independently contracts with an employer for a particular job.
2. _____________.
3. The department contract model .

2. The union brokerage model . An officer’s union or association brokers the employment for its members so that they need not search for their own job and negotiate pay.

25

Contract Police Issues
Albert Reiss Jr. ( 1988 : 9) produced three models of secondary employment that are still useful today.
1. The officer contract model . Each officer is a principal who independently contracts with an employer for a particular job.
2. The union brokerage model . An officer’s union or association brokers the employment for its members so that they need not search for their own job and negotiate pay.
3. __________

3. The department contract model .

26

According to Reiss, under the union brokerage model, the union sets ______and ______for paid details and may bargain with the police department concerning status and condition of paid details.

conditions and pay for paid details

27

Under the _______, the police department performs three major functions ( Reiss, 1988 : 11): It “( 1) contracts with employers for paid details; ( 2) assigns officers to details; and ( 3) pays the officers from reimbursements by employers.”

department contract model

28

The three major issues that restrict employment of the public police are:
( 1) p________,
( 2) t_________, and
( 3) “an ___________”

( 1) potential conflict of interest,
( 2) threat to the dignity of police as an occupation, and
( 3) “an unacceptable risk of temporary or disabling injury that would limit their [ the police officer’s] return to regular duty”

29

Millions of dollars are spent annually on police overtime , yet there are practically no ________on this topic

published studies

30

The lack of _____ and ____ on this issue can result in bloated budgets, an inefficient use of police personnel, police officer exhaustion, and unnecessary tension between line officers and police supervisors

attention and planning

31

A nationwide study of overtime involving 2,183 police agencies found that the major reasons for overtime were s______, c______, e______, and c_______.

shift extensions, court appearances, emergency situations, and contract requirements.

32

The high cost of overtime needs to be controlled through proactive police management, including recording, analyzing, managing, and supervision. The most vital issue is to have basic records of the following:
• N______
• W_______
• O________
• A d__________

• Number of overtime minutes
• What the overtime was used for
• Officers and units performing the overtime work
• A daily computerized usage record in a retrievable form

33

As Bayley and Worden ( 1998 : 3) stress, “ Paid overtime increases policing activity while __________ results in less policing because every hour worked must be repaid by the department at time and a half time taken away from other activities.”

compensatory time

34

With _________, overtime can be controlled by police management.

good records

35

Proactive Policies for Controlling Overtime:
1. A program is required that notifies management any time a unit or officer is ________ so the reason can be looked into immediately.
.

building up overtime

36

Proactive Policies for Controlling Overtime:
2. An agreement should be reached with the courts to limit personnel needed in court, to eliminate the need for supervisory police personnel, and to create a court schedule that _________. With instant communications and computer scheduling available, police officers should be able to work other duties while awaiting court appearances.

conforms to straight time as much as possible

37

Proactive Policies for Controlling Overtime:
3. Written guidelines are needed for instructing supervisors when to _________. The overtime should be immediately entered into the overtime computer program, with the reason for shift extension, and the officers’ names and units that were granted the extension.

approve shift extensions

38

Proactive Policies for Controlling Overtime:

4. Good _______are mandatory. When elected officials consider the costs of police personnel, a report should be on their desks giving the reasons for overtime costs in understaffed police departments.

records on overtime

39

Proactive Policies for Controlling Overtime:
5. Emergency planning must be done with ________. Emergencies can also be planned for with a mobilization plan and an interagency agreement with other police departments.

straight-time personnel

40

Proactive Policies for Controlling Overtime:

6. Special events, including traffic control, need to be __________, using special police officers on straight time, and should involve other agencies. Event sponsors may need to pay for extra police coverage.

planned well ahead of time

41

Proactive Policies for Controlling Overtime:
7. Adjustable and flexible work schedules are a first line of defense. The schedules must be available to senior management, planning personnel, and line supervisors. A 2011 study by the Police Foundation found that officers assigned to 8- hour shifts earned _______as much overtime as officers assigned to 10- hour shifts, and _______ as much as officers assigned to 12- hour shifts ( Amendola et al., 2011 ).

five times

three times

42

Proactive Policies for Controlling Overtime
8. All overtime should be through payroll financial compensation, never in __________ .

compensatory time

43

Proactive Policies for Controlling Overtime

9. Departments should have adequate staffing to cover ____ and ______ functions and should not depend on overtime for basic coverage

line and auxiliary functions

44

The major issues relate to stress created by the ______ and stress created by the _______.

Organization
individual

45

Organizational stress is created by lack of ______or by _________.

communication
miscommunication

46

A lack of _________ may cause the line officer and his or her immediate superiors to think that they lack control over their jobs.

consistency

47

Individual stress is often created by a personality type attracted to police work that has been labeled _____ . _______ personalities tend to overcommit themselves to a wide variety of tasks and feel that they have to be doing something all the time. They feel that they must be in control of all situations affecting them. They often have insomnia, but they also accomplish a great deal of what they set out to do.

Type A

48

M______, p______, and a variety of e_____ are excellent tools that have been used to deal with stress and stressors. Remember that stress, itself, is not bad. It is uncontrolled stress that is destructive.

Meditation, posture work, and a variety of exercises

49

Stress recognition and reduction techniques should be part of every ________.

in- service police training program

50

perceptions of ________ and techniques for handling ________ can reduce stress on individual officers.

perceptions of violence and
techniques for handling violence.

An officer must have enough training and experience to handle and control stress- producing situations.

51

Organizational structures can produce or diminish stress. In plain English, this means that police personnel need c_______, _______, and a g________ that allows for modification of orders in terms of the needs of the line officer.

consistency of command, time to assimilate new orders, and a good feed-back system

52

Officers and managers, especially middle managers, need __________ so that the line officer will feel that ( 1) someone up there in management land is listening and that ( 2) he or she has a real and responsible input into the orders that affect his or her everyday professional life. People need to feel in control of their lives. Capricious orders with no explanation destroy this feeling of control.

communication skills

53

Violanti ( 1983) showed that stress increases in what he calls the first two stages of a police career:
____ years, the ______ stage, and ____ years, the ______ stage.
He recommends that programs on stress management be focused on these years.

0-5, alarm

6-13, disenchantment

54

He (Violanti) felt that “_________ is the most important factor in determining stress levels.”

individual perception

55

One approach that large departments can use and smaller departments can create on a regional level is what Robert Loo, the first chief psychologist of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, calls his __________. He recommends the creation of a center that will have a __________ on providing psychological services, including “ recruit selection, support of force training programs, the support of members in the workplace and pre- retirement services”

proactive approach to psychological services


career- cycle perceptive

(He feels that this proactive approach will help police managers deal more adequately with these problems.)

56

Family stress can be decreased by ________. At the training level, spouses and domestic partners should learn about the job and the stressors in the job, tour the police unit, and take part in a ride- along program.

departmental intervention

57

In Stress Management for Law Enforcement Officers , Anderson et al. ( 1995 : 283) show four major factors that affect officers’ negative attitudes toward their work:
“( 1) the particular stresses they face,
( 2) the extent to which the ______backs them and rewards them with convictions for the good arrests,
( 3) their ________, and
( 4) their _______ system.”

legal system

Zone of stability

support

58

The __________ is “ the range of stimulation ( excitement, arousal) from the least to the most an individual can handle without signs of distress”

zone of a person’s stability

59

Supervisors, such as sergeants, lieutenants, or captains, who are trained in _________are less stressed and create less stress for subordinates.

supervision techniques

60

Training and stress management is just as important for supervisors and managers as for any line officer. Standfest has a four- stage approach:
1. A_______. Through a________, police executives learn which stressors are affecting their supervisors.
2. P_______. The police executives remove the stressors in a cost- effective manner. Standfest says that fundamental approaches, such as repairing station houses and vehicles, could reduce a great deal of stress at low cost.
3. A_____. Police executives fully carry out any plan and let the supervisors know what is going on.
4. F________. Police executives evaluate the action, making sure that the orders were fully carried out, and assess the outcomes

1. Assessment
2. Planning
3. Action
4. Follow-through

61

Anderson and colleagues ( 1995 : 130) show the nature of police role stressors and role over-load. These recommendations can be summarized as follows: 1. Clear and current policies and procedures concerning work tasks reduce __________.

1. reduce police role ambiguity.

62

Anderson and colleagues ( 1995 : 130) show the nature of police role stressors and role over-load. These recommendations can be summarized as follows:
2. A _________ by supervisors concerning their subordinates, along with a clear two- way feedback system, is essential.

2. A consistent expectation

63

Anderson and colleagues ( 1995 : 130) show the nature of police role stressors and role over-load. These recommendations can be summarized as follows:
3. Officers and supervisors need to have a high tolerance for ________.

ambiguity

64

Anderson and colleagues ( 1995 : 130) show the nature of police role stressors and role over-load. These recommendations can be summarized as follows:
4. Active participation by _________in decision making provides a system of mutual responsibility that continually relieves stress.

all authority levels

65

Supervisors can reduce stress by
“( 1) teaching the officers ‘ _______’; that is, how to use words to control citizens’ behavior;
( 2) showing the officers the _______and when to use them; and
( 3) explaining the nature and characteristics of the ________” ( Anderson et al., 1995 : 285). This is exactly what proactive participatory management and proactive community policing do when they are working effectively.

1. verbal judo

2. laws that apply

3. particular public they serve

66

Studies by Vila showed that officers identified as fatigued had slow reactions to various kinds of mechanical and speed tests and were high risks for ____________.

motor vehicle accidents

67

Unlike truck drivers and railroad engineers, there is no ____________ for police officers.

fatigue standard

68

The alertness assurance program is a proactive approach that can help protect departments from lawsuits resulting from mistakes made by tired officers. Following are some elements of the program:
• I___________
• Teaching employees and their families about how to manage shift work
• Not letting employees drive home while fatigued by providing free rides and a place to nap
• Setting up a permanent employee/ management task force to manage fatigue

Implementing a consistent and biocompatible work schedule with controls for overtime

69

The alertness assurance program is a proactive approach that can help protect departments from lawsuits resulting from mistakes made by tired officers. Following are some elements of the program:
• Implementing a consistent and biocompatible work schedule with controls for overtime
• T__________
• Not letting employees drive home while fatigued by providing free rides and a place to nap
• Setting up a permanent employee/ management task force to manage fatigue


• Teaching employees and their families about how to manage shift work

70

The alertness assurance program is a proactive approach that can help protect departments from lawsuits resulting from mistakes made by tired officers. Following are some elements of the program:
• Implementing a consistent and biocompatible work schedule with controls for overtime
• Teaching employees and their families about how to manage shift work
• N_________________
• Setting up a permanent employee/ management task force to manage fatigue

• Not letting employees drive home while fatigued by providing free rides and a place to nap

71

The alertness assurance program is a proactive approach that can help protect departments from lawsuits resulting from mistakes made by tired officers. Following are some elements of the program:
• Implementing a consistent and biocompatible work schedule with controls for overtime
• Teaching employees and their families about how to manage shift work
• Not letting employees drive home while fatigued by providing free rides and a place to nap
• S_________________

• Setting up a permanent employee/ management task force to manage fatigue

72

The research (on fatigue) also found that most officers who _______________ — recovered from fatigue.

took time off— that is, sick days, vacation days, or a regular number of days off between shifts

73

A carefully planned session on managing fatigue is needed both at ______________. Supervisors need to recognize the symptoms of fatigue, and police managers need to use the principle of managing fatigue when creating a work schedule.

roll call and during recruit training

74

Controlling and minimizing _______and ________ is essential to reducing officer fatigue.

over-time and off- duty jobs

75

______ percent of the 2012 police suicides were military veterans, _____ percent were male, and _____ percent were single ( Clark and O’Hara, 2012 ).

11%
91%
63%

76

Many departments, under their own initiative or through union pressure, have begun employee- assistance programs ( EAPs) to deal with these problems. Smaller agencies participate through _____________.

regional arrangements or with state- or county- sponsored programs

77

Generally, these programs are staffed by _________. Larger departments have the services of professional counselors and psychologists.

fellow police officers who receive training in counseling and referral

78

When these programs first began, many officers stayed away for fear of being thought cry-babies or cowards or destined for the rubber gun squad. Confidentiality was and remains an issue, and many early programs were doomed to failure when _________________.

their offices were located in central headquarters

79

Many departments have also initiated written line- of- duty death notification policies to address a number of concerns related to on- and off- duty deaths. Policies of this nature address guidelines for death notification and for working with the family for the wake and funeral ceremonies. Some policies address situations in which the family is taken to the emergency room. The key issues related to situations of this nature include review of _____________, _______ relations, assistance to ___________ members, and post-funeral assistance for survivors.

insurance and workers’ compensation benefits, media relations, assistance to out- of- town family members, and post-funeral assistance for survivors