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Flashcards in Chp 2 Police Culture Deck (79):

________, common components that come into play in context of this textbook include morals customs and norms



A __________Is a group that shares and overall culture of society but also has its own distinctive values norms and lifestyle



Robertson defines __________ as share rules or guidelines that prescribed the behavior appropriate in a given situation



__________ can be used to increase effectiveness and efficiency or it can be turned to managerial sabotage.

Informal organization


The operating norm is ___________.

“ You are never alone.”


Social Isolation The perception of a________is part of what makes police officers feel alone. Officers carry a gun and arrest people. They know they can trust a cop but never an outsider.

hostile public


CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POLICE SUBCULTURE A. B. Hollingshead has given us the basic definition of a vocational subculture and its major characteristics: “ a group of specialists recognized by society, as well as by themselves, who possess an identifiable complex of c_______, v_____, c_________ (argot or other symbols), t_______, and a________.”

common culture, values, communication devices ( argot or other symbols), techniques, and appropriate behavior patterns


Police officers in every region of the nation have developed an argot (meaning? _______) that is generally not shared by outsiders.

( specialized vocabulary of a profession)


Much of police argot revolves around ( 1) c_______, ( 2) w______________, and ( 3) c_______________. Examples of argot from the major police forces have become well known. In the New York City Police Department ( NYPD), officers may have a _____ ( a highly placed police official) who can help them out if they get caught _________( sleeping on duty). In other departments, the rabbi might be called a _____or a _____. Argot from the black community also creeps in, such as when a rabbi becomes a _______.

(1) citations to the penal law, ( 2) words and phrases that are coded and phrased so that they can be heard without ambiguity over a radio, and ( 3) criminal and street jargon laced liberally with obscenities.





main man


_____________ Hollingshead’s second major characteristic of a vocational subculture is an excellent description of what researchers refer to as the transition from the police academy recruit to police officer, which he calls “ the acquisition by initiates of the body of _______ and appropriate behavior patterns before the novices are accepted by the initiated”.

Esoteric Knowledge

Esoteric Knowledge


Characteristics of the Police Subculture

Esoteric Knowledge
Internal Sanctions
Social Isolation
Perception of Violence and Psychological Distance


Esoteric Knowledge The objective of the police academy, over and above teaching basic knowledge and skills, is to instill into the recruit an acceptance of the _________.

police role model


In Behind the Shield , Arthur Niederhoffer showed the stages of cynicism as the police recruit moves from the idealistic role models of the police academy to the street. The first stage, ________, occurs at the training school/ recruit level and is an attitude that “barely conceals the idealism and commitment beneath the surface.” The second stage, _________, comes within the _______years of an officer’s career. The third stage, __________ , is evident at_____ year mark, when “ resentment and hostility become obvious.” At this stage, Niederhoffer talks about a subculture of cynicism. The end of the police officer’s career is what Niederhoffer calls ___________, when an officer accepts the flaws of the system.

pseudo- cynicism

romantic cynicism first five

aggressive cynicism the 10-

resigned cynicism


Crank summed up this approach in what he called _________: 1. Do not give up another cop. Regardless of the case . . . never provide information to the public or superior officers. 2. Watch out for your partner first and then for the rest of the shift . . . inform a fellow officer if he or she is being investigated by internal affairs. 3. If you get caught off base, do not implicate anybody else . . . do not involve other cops who might also be punished. 4. Hold up your end of the work. Malingering draws attention to everyone on the shift. 5. Do not suck up to the bosses for special favors.

Postulates of Invisibility


___________: Hollingshead’s final point on the characteristics of a vocational subculture focuses on the internal social control that helps describe how a police department’s informal structure actually works: “ Appropriate sanctions [ are] applied by the membership to control members in their relations with one another and with the larger society and to control nonmembers in their relations with members.”

Internal Sanctions


As has been shown, there is a great deal of pressure for conformity among police officers. Reiser considers _________to be “ one of the most profound pressures operating in police organizations.” He shows how it functions: “ It bolsters and supports the individual officer’s esteem and confidence, which then allows him to tolerate higher levels of anger, hostility and abuse from external sources.”

peer influence


The most frequent example of this feeling of unity, besides the officer- in- trouble call and the need for backup in potentially dangerous situations, is probably seen in the area of _________.

professional courtesy


Social Isolation:
From these and other social activities dominated by fellow officers and their family, police officers create a feeling that each one of them is part of the ________ . This social isolation has made many police officers consider themselves a __________. Stan Shernock surveyed 11 police departments and concluded, “ As a result of police perception of public hostility toward them, police officers have assumed many of the characteristics of a _________”

blue minority

persecuted minority

minority group


There is a positive functional aspect to this social isolation, and that is the need for ___________between the police officer and many of his or her clients.

psychological distance


Dr. John Stratton, former director of psychological services for the Los Angeles County sheriff ’ s office, shows what happens to officers who are involved in traumatic events, such as killing another human being. Roughly ______develop major problems that affect their family, and they may leave the profession because of the trauma; about ______have moderate problems, such as waking up screaming at night, but they recover; and about _______have minimal problems.

one- third

one- third

one- third


Every organization has a _____ and an ______structure.

formal and informal


The _______ structure involves the organization chart and lines of authority ( e. g., police chief, deputy chief, inspectors, captains, lieutenants, sergeants, and police officers).



Although official business is conducted by the _______organization, the _______ structure often determines which decisions will be made and the manner in which these decisions will be carried out.




In policing, it is not just critical to establish intra- agency informal structure and lines of communication, but ______, as well. Criminals and emergencies do not stay within designated police jurisdictional boundaries, so policing can’t either.

inter- agency


A good police leader knows that it is important to establish _________ with other agency personnel and leaders when the ________, so that working together in times of need can be done more effectively.

healthy working relationships

sea is calm


Roberts and Roberts conducted an extensive study on how police agency personnel interact informally, such as in sharing research on an issue faced by multiple agencies. ________and _________were found to play a significant role in inter- agency contacts.

Agency size and geographical nearness


Typical social groups that exist in and influence police in a police department include f________ composed of officers; officers who play g____, r_______, or c____ together; and e____ and e_______.

fraternal orders composed of officers; officers who play golf, racquetball, or cards together; and ethnic and extended kinship groups.


The Hawthorne Study:
In the early 1920s and 1930s, under the leadership of Elton Mayo, the Harvard Business School conducted a series of research projects at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company. Many observers refer to this as the beginning of the _______ approach to management. The key to this approach was the discovery of the _________and its __________ system.

human relations

informal organization



The Hawthorne Study:
Management in one part of the Hawthorne plant tried to speed up the production of parts for telephone switches by placing the workers on a piece- rate system. Production did not change, even though the workers could have easily increased production. Researchers discovered informal work norms within the workers’ group that placed social penalties on ( 1) “ _______” who exceeded the work norm, ( 2) “________” who did not fulfill the work norm, and ( 3) “________” who might have informed management of this system. This research on the informal structure has been replicated in many organizations both public and private, with much the same results.

rate busters




We shall now look at a variety of groups within the police organization, such as i_______, e_____ and r_____ groups, and f______ societies. All these make up what Drucker calls the _______

informal cliques,
ethnic and racial groups,
and fraternal societies.

work community


The Work Community:
According to Drucker, management is interested in making necessary decisions in relation to the mission of its business. He also states that management should not be making incidental decisions related to the _______ and that these decisions can clog the ________. Decisions on such items as vacation schedule and cafeteria and recreation facilities should be decentralized and left to the __________.

work community

organization’s decision- making machinery

work community


The Work Community:
Decisions on such items as vacation schedule and cafeteria and recreation facilities should be decentralized and left to the work community. Although these decisions may not be of high priority, they are important and can be a means of fostering _______ for the worker. This is not a ___________, for management organizes the working teams.

leadership opportunities

participatory democracy


The Work Community:
Social scientists, business psychologists, and personnel managers have been studying this informal group structure for many years. A basic concept that they use is that of the primary group as it operates in the _________or ________. This concept must be understood to use it to analyze police organization and how it really operates on a daily basis.

secondary or formal organization


The Effect of the Primary Group on Police Bureaucracy:
In the primary group, communication is normally:

Deep and extensive
Face- to- face
Intimate Relaying a sense of belonging
A response to a whole person rather than to a fragmented social role


In addition, the primary group assumes many of the characteristics of what Max Weber calls a __________ group, where there is a high degree of cohesion and the group is often perceived as an enlarged kinship.



Secondary organizations are normally • _______
• _______. Communications are also impersonal and formal, and relations are based on specialized roles. This is what Max Weber calls ________ , and that is the modern corporate bureaucracy that is found at the core of many police structures.





________include the family, personal friends, neighborhood social groups, and people who play friendly card games on a regular basis. Examples of ____________ are civil service, organized religion, local government, and military groups.

Primary groups

secondary orgainzations


To feel that he or she is a total human being, the police officer needs roots in the security of a primary group setting within the organization. Primary groups provide the following for individual members:
• P________
• Sense of s________
• Sense of w________
• Sense of b________
• Sense of s________

• Personal development
• Sense of security
• Sense of well- being
• Sense of being accepted for one’s self
• Sense of sustaining one’s identity and defining that identity


Primary groups become of major significance for the police manager who recognizes the importance of informal police groups in sustaining morale. The role of primary groups in the police bureaucracy may be to
• Support or u_______
• Form a p_________
• Have a m_________
• Have a m_________

• Support or undermine the formal police organization
• Form a powerful informal police structure
• Have a mediating function, binding the individual to the larger police organization
• Have a major role in creating social stability in the police organization and in society in general


Generally, these primary groups form around a community of _______and __________

shared experience and proximity


_______,_______, and ________are the major police norms.

Secrecy, solidarity, and social isolation


On coming into the ______, the rookie realizes that he is becoming accepted as a member of the line officer police group.



In his book, Walking with the Devil: The Police Code of Conduct , Quinn makes a good point in that almost all police officers are ethically sound, and wouldn’t even contemplate illicit behavior, but for some reason, many would tolerate other officers breaking the rules without reporting them. This is The Code of Silence, which Quinn describes as, “____________”

"the singularly most powerful influence on police behavior in the world."


A 2013 study thoroughly addressed decades of police corruption in Chicago. In it, the authors reviewed 50 years’ worth of incidents of police corruption in the city, and similar to Quinn in the previous section, found that police officers are reluctant to turn in other officers. The study found that increases in gang violence are related to increased police corruption, and that _______ is critical to breaking the Code of Silence.

strong leadership


Police Corruption and Internal Norms:
The basic approach of these varied studies is to examine ( 1) how police officers __________, ( 2) the sources of _______, and ( 3) whether the payoffs are ___________.

( 1) how police officers corrupt other police officers, ( 2) the sources of temptation, and ( 3) whether the payoffs are regular ( e. g., the pad) or a one- time affair.


Police Corruption and Internal Norms:
Another source of information about internal police norms and pressure involves _______ and ________.

police corruption

police abuses


Sherman focuses on breaking the linkages between local politics and police corruption. He proposes various strategies that police managers can use to control their staff. Sherman’s conclusions are as follows: 1. _________ strategies ( aimed at ongoing corruption) for corruption control can reduce the level of organization of police corruption. 2. _________ strategies ( aimed at past corruption) for corruption control do not seem to be as effective as premonitory strategies. 3. The same strategies for corruption control can be employed in ___________.

1. Premonitory strategies ( aimed at ongoing corruption) for corruption control can reduce the level of organization of police corruption.
2. Postmonitory strategies ( aimed at past corruption) for corruption control do not seem to be as effective as premonitory strategies.
3. The same strategies for corruption control can be employed in a police department of any size, although the tactics may differ.


Corruption cannot exist without the ____________.

active cooperation of top police officials and major figures in the political hierarchy


Positive Police Ethics In his article on police ethics in Britain and the European Union, Peter Neyroud states the following principles:
• Police respect citizens’ personal rights and autonomy through ___________.
• Police officers help people without ________.
• The _________ brings mutual respect between citizens and police.
• There is _________ over police powers and care for the community.
• _________ is a key value of police integrity.

• Police respect citizens’ personal rights and autonomy through morally respectable laws.
• Police officers help people without harming others.
• The middle way brings mutual respect between citizens and police.
• There is police trusteeship over police powers and care for the community.
• Honesty is a key value of police integrity.


Another approach to the study of internal groups has been the "____________" study. The theory of ideal types, introduced into social science by ______, says that models of reality can be created as an extreme form of that reality and used to clarify the relationships embodied in that reality.

“typology of ideal types”

Max Weber


Wilson’s ( 1968 ) styles of policing described as w_______, l______, and s_____, are perhaps the most widely known among police administrators.

watchman, legalistic, and service


What this and other typologies do is enable the researcher and the student of police management and police culture to use the __________as a tool to analyze police departments and police groups. We will see this tool in use when we look at styles of leadership and management.

ideal typology


Paoline also states that more minorities, college- educated officers, and female officers, along with community policing, “ may have___________.”

"eroded the monolithic police culture"


The most important variables predicting police behavior in the field are ________ and ________, as well as whether the victim wishes to have an arrest made.

lower economic class and race demeanor


The results of their inter-views provide clear indication that as far as law enforcement has progressed over the past half century in terms of a fully integrated multi- racial police force, __________ is still needed if we hope to eliminate biases.

strong leadership


The first female officer was appointed in the Los Angeles Police Department in ______. As Owings pointed out in Women Police, the female officer was normally used in three areas: _______,________, and __________.


vice, juvenile work, and the handling of female prisoners ( police matron).


Sherman indicated that in the early 1970s, women still constituted only _____ percent of the national police force and that they still held the traditionally female police jobs in the male- dominated departments around the nation.

2 to 3%


In _______, Chief Winston Churchill of the ________ Police Department assigned two women to car 47 to do regular patrol work.




Balkin did an empirical study in 1988 titled “ Why Policemen Don’t Like Policewomen.” He quoted one respondent: “ If you are sleeping with someone you are a slut; if not you are a dyke." The reasons why female police officers have such a hard time being accepted by the male police force are __________.

once again the three S ’ s: secrecy, solidarity, and social isolation.


Teresa Lynn Wertsch interviewed 16 female officers who were “ walking the thin blue line.”...meaning that female officers could not be better than male officers, nor could they be worse. They had to walk this thin blue line if they were to avoid ________. Wertsch described the ________ of female officers. While male officers are dispatched to major criminal and assault calls, females were assigned to family violence, sexual assaults, and rape and traffic accidents/ incidents. She blamed _______. ________ has been widespread throughout the United States, as numerous studies have shown.

being attacked

role entrapment

sexist police dispatchers

Role entrapment


In June 2013, the United States Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional for any form of marriage to be discriminated against in any way, including insurance- related issues. As in the military, gays in law enforcement are in a __________.

period of transition


A ____________, including cultural sensitivity training, can ease the transition to accepting an openly homosexual police officer.

proactive approach


The most cited study on gay and lesbian officers took place in_________, by Belkin and McNichol. The study concluded that “fully integrating gay and lesbian officers has "______________."

San Diego, CA

"improved the agency’s quality and responsiveness to the community.”


( Belkin and McNichol LGBT study). The report gave three reasons for the success of San Diego’s program:
1. S__________________.
2. A _________________.
3. The u______________.

Strong support and leadership from three police chiefs

special training program for all new recruits that covered appropriate rules of conduct

use of openly gay and lesbian police officers as special liaisons with the local gay community


It was always difficult but it looks like most departments simply accept gay police officers even though some police officers, family, and friends do not accept the officer’s choice. What matters most is that __________continues to support the officer’s career.

the department


There has also been an impact on police culture by __________.

community policing


In this century, the United States has had the largest influx of immigrants from ______,_____, and _________ with a large percentage of households speaking English as a second language.

Asia, Africa, and Latin America


_____________has brought the community into the station house and administration as part of the decision- making process concerning basic police policies.

community policing


Wood et al. say that there has been a fragmentation of police culture. They describe a number of different police officer subcultures. The ________subculture consists of dedicated crime fighters who operate mostly independent of the community and their own police supervisors. The _______subculture has a SWAT mentality with a war on crime. The _______ subculture consists of cynical officers who are looking for personal advancement with little loyalty to the department as a whole. The __________subculture is dedicated to carrying out this model.

traditional subculture



expert, community- oriented police ( COP)


Wood et al. The authors say the traditional and paramilitary subcultures are hostile to _________. These latter subcultures treat _________as mere public relations.

community- oriented policing.

community policing


The police norm of social isolation is weakened by the ________________.

COP model of involvement with the community


Minority, women, and gay police associations have major ties with groups outside of policing. However, the ___________and ___________ can reinforce the social isolation norm.

traditional bureaucratic model and intelligence- led policing


The weakening of ________is a positive change for police officers, management, and the communities they serve. An increasingly diverse community equipped with twenty- first century information technology has made this a necessary change.

social isolation


A certain level of _______ protecting departmental security is a serious norm that is worth keeping.



_________ can destroy corruption investigations but is also a major support for officers in a high- stress job.



The acceptance of women, minority, and gay police officers strengthens _________.



As discussed by Crank , studies on the police subculture illustrate this state of affairs in most departments in that the police officers are often faced with boredom and routine interspersed with life threatening situations overseen by “ the bosses.” Supervisors and superior officers are often referred to in derogatory terms and labeled as untrustworthy and “ out to get” subordinates. The real reason for many early retirements Crank finds is the inability to ________ related to the bureaucratic aspects of the police occupation.

put up with the “ bullshit”


The main cause of stress for many officers is not the horrors seen on patrol but rather ____________.

the arbitrary enforcement of departmental and governmental policies and uneven or illegal command decision making


Police managers, from chiefs to sergeants, have to realize that most officers like to be treated as professionals and demand that their leaders are respectful, supportive, decisive, and know what they are doing. From the authors’ perspective there is a need for ________ in dealing with both citizens and fellow officers.

fundamental fairness