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Flashcards in Chp 4 Purposes and Principles Deck (74):
1

***START***
O. W. Wilson, former superintendent of the Chicago Police Department and author of the classic textbook Police Administration, used the term “ ________” to characterize the police officer who was everywhere in his random patrol duties, deterring crime by his mere presence.

the omnipresent police officer

2

However, a study of the effect of ______ in Kansas City indicated that the mere presence of uniformed police and marked vehicles may not be the deterrent that we once thought.

random patrol

3

In this much cited study, the Kansas City Experiment divided that area’s 15 precincts into three groups to study three approaches to patrol: ( 1) respond to calls only, ( 2) provide normal random
patrol, and ( 3) provide _______times the normal level of ______. This was the conclusion: “ The experiment found that the three experimental patrol conditions appeared not to affect crime, service delivery and citizen feelings of security”

random patrol

two to three

4

LAW ENFORCEMENT AS BIG BUSINESS According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics ( 2011) , Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2008 , there were ______state and local law enforcement agencies.

17,985

5

LAW ENFORCEMENT AS BIG BUSINESS
According to the census, approximately half ( 40%) employed fewer than _____ full- time officers.

10

6

LAW ENFORCEMENT AS BIG BUSINESS
_____ percent of the nation’s largest police agencies experienced a decline in personnel. This was the result of fiscal cutbacks in municipal government starting with the 2008 recession.

30

7

LAW ENFORCEMENT AS BIG BUSINESS
The most recent survey by the Bureau of Justice Statistics reported in December 2011 that federal, state, and local governments across the country spent over ______ in fiscal year 2007 for both criminal and civil justice expenditures. Local governments contributed almost one half of these expenditures.

$ 228 billion

8

Exclusive of school boards, the public agencies that make the greatest demands on the tax dollars of most communities are the big three: ____, _____, and _____.

police, fire, and public works

9

In many states, the ___________, based on examinations, does much to inhibit management success.

system of civil service

10

CIVIL SERVICE AND PROMOTIONS
The lack of lateral entry, the parochialism, and the influence of police associations and unions support the concept that _________. We are not suggesting that civil service exams be abolished; rather, we would like to see them upgraded and made more relevant to the positions. They should not be used as the _______. There should be some evaluation of the candidates’ past performances— an oral interview and perhaps even a battery of psychological and management tests.

the best must come through the ranks

sole criterion for promotion

11

It seems that many agencies, especially in ________states, have developed alternative methods of promotion with a more progressive approach to the selection of candidates for the respective positions. Namely, the promotion to sergeant, while being based some-what on a written examination, is strongly influenced by ___________.

western and southern

assessment with established criteria

12

While there is no ideal or foolproof way of getting the best candidates, the above suggests that the _________has the greatest opportunity of getting the people he feels are the most qualified and/ or compatible with his goals and the goals of the community.

progressive administrator

13

The Use of Civilian Employees:
According to the United States Department of Justice ( 2008), civilians constituted approximately ___ percent of the total law enforcement employee force in the United States and represented about ___ percent of the police employees in cities. Women accounted for almost ___ percent of all civilian employees.

31

23

62

14

This number (of civilian PD employees) is expected to increase given the movement to use civilians for non- sworn police functions. Important considerations for the hiring of civilian police personnel are a ______ and a _______ and the need for college education.

thorough back-ground check

psychological assessment

15

Civilian personnel are now being used in sensitive positions in r_____, h_______, c_______, c_______, and c______, which results in making judgment calls that will affect the department and sworn personnel. This should emphasize the need for more attention by management to proper training necessary to equip these civilians to perform efficiently and effectively.

records, human resources, crime laboratories, communications, and crime analysis

16

The purposes that we have traditionally accepted to be the main thrust of managing a police agency are as follows:
1. P______
2. P______
3. P______
4. A______

1. Protecting life and property
2. Preserving the peace
3. Preventing criminality
4. Apprehending criminals

17

1. Protecting life and property 2. Preserving the peace 3. Preventing criminality 4. Apprehending criminals:
Although these are still legitimate purposes for policing, they have a major defect: They have become ______.

reactive

18

Little encouragement is given to line officers to act _______. It has become increasingly apparent today that the concept of policing has embraced a new dimension that encourages us to add a fifth purpose: ___________.

proactively

enhanced community involvement

19

Another important function that has emerged is providing information related to crime trends, emergencies, and community events. This has further increased through the use of _________.

department managed social networking sites

20

The increase or decrease in crime as released to the media through the ________ or state crime reports is taken as an indication of the effectiveness of the police agency. Unfortunately, such reactive measures tend to promote________, leading to the issuance of more traffic tickets, the growth of an unofficial quota system, and the “ fudging” of crime statistics.

Uniform Crime Reports

poor management

21

As noted in Chapter 1 , the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829 created the first modern police force in London, England. In the force’s first duty manual, Sir Charles Rowan stated the primary purpose for having a law enforcement agency: “ It should be understood at the outset, that the principal object to be obtained is the _______.” Officers were specifically evaluated and rewarded for the attainment of this goal. This proactive, preventive approach led to better _________.

Prevention of Crime

police– community relations

22

Citizens are never happy about being the victim of a crime, even if the crime is solved and the goods are returned. ________ itself brought about a significant decrease in support for police.

Victimization

23

A proactive department is more concerned with _________ than with tallying up some kind of score of arrests after the citizen has been victimized. Another modern day issue concerning public support of the police is ________.

protecting the citizens from harm

traffic enforcement

24

Police department funding bodies, such as legislatures, are concerned with ________. They want ______ and _______ to justify the funding of specific police services.

what works in policing

specific data and performance measures

25

a police department should be able to define _______ and their _______ and create overall strategies for addressing these problems, including requests for public support in dealing with specific issues.

major community crime issues

root causes

26

There is also a need to make public reports on crime issues that go beyond the __________. This is what community policing is all about.

statistical data presented in annual reports

27

Dealing with Serious Crime Incidents:
When such an incident occurs, the police department has to be responsible for providing a _______ and, when necessary, calling for _________. Officers, supervisors, and senior administrators must be trained and equipped to deal with the incident from the moment the call comes to conducting follow- up investigations and dealing with media queries.

professional first response

additional resources from out-side the jurisdiction

28

Achieving Major Short- and Long- Term Objectives:
At executive seminars, we challenge chiefs and their command staff to set long- term goals and objectives. These should be defined in ____________.

measurable terms such as reducing certain types of crimes, increasing a certain kind of service, or obtaining a resource

29

Analyzing the Costs of Policing The costs of a police department should be fairly well known, but they are not. The hidden costs, however, are never found in the ______.

budget

30

Analyzing the Costs of Policing
Consider the following: • Overtime costs may be funded from _________ that are charged for the costs of officers’ services.

external sources

31

Analyzing the Costs of Policing

• Some personnel positions are generated by grant funding ( called “ soft money” lines). These positions are intact only for the duration of the grant. The costs of these officers were then assumed by ________ at the end of the grants.

the local police departments

32

Analyzing the Costs of Policing
• The number of personnel who are defined in an organizational chart is different from the number of personnel available _________.

for and on duty

33

Analyzing the Costs of Policing
• Some of the budget should cover the cost and time for r______ and s______, t_______, h______ and r______, and g_________.

recruitment and selection, training, health and retirement benefits, and general officer turnover.

34

Evaluating the Quality of Services
Few police departments measure customer satisfaction in terms of g_______, c_____, a______, and follow- up of c_________.

general call response, courtesy, advice on next steps, and follow- up of criminal complaints.

35

REALITY- BASED PROACTIVE PURPOSES OF POLICE ORGANIZATIONS: Modern society calls on all police managers to provide satisfaction for the citizens of the com-munity in fulfilling the traditional purposes of policing. However, police managers also need to go beyond the traditional purposes of policing to the following areas of responsibility: ( 1) p______, ( 2) p_____, and ( 3) p_________.

( 1) performance, ( 2) preparedness, and ( 3) progressiveness.

36

Performance: Specific role definitions of police performance and productivity measures need to be created in terms of the daily activity of both the line officer and the ________. _______must be developed to monitor the performance of line officers and police managers and to evaluate their activities so as to reward appropriate delivery of police services to the community.

police manager

Feedback mechanisms

37

Performance:
The focus is on measures of _____ in official positions and measures of __________.

individuals

organizational effectiveness

38

Preparedness speaks to the needs of _____as well as ______and entails the relation of the police agency to other community and government organizations, such as social welfare and health agencies.

short- range

long- range planning

39

Progressiveness is a basic ________concept in which leaders are flexible and ________ and are willing to institute new ideas because they may work. Such leaders do not feel threatened by such changes.

management- for- change

tolerant of ambiguity

40

MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES To accomplish these purposes, management guidelines are needed. The following six principles allow for both the traditional reactive approach and the aggressive proactive approach: ( 1) r____ , ( 2) r_____ , ( 3) r______ , ( 4) r_____ , ( 5) r_____ , and ( 6) r______ .

( 1) respond , ( 2) regulate , ( 3) restrain , ( 4) recover , ( 5) repress , and ( 6) reinforce

41

Respond:
Most police activities are reactions to calls for service early response time is significant only in cases of _______or calls of an ______. Response time becomes important in the securing of crime scenes and the immediate apprehension of criminals. It is irrelevant to the majority of service calls. Too much management and training time is spent on this issue of _______.

crimes in progress

emergency nature

response time

42

Regulate:
Traditionally noncriminal police activities, and regulations are necessary to prevent crises in our communities. This area of policing provides an excellent opportunity to _________, countering the police image as a repressive, restrictive force demanding compliance with rules, ordinances, and so on.

improve relations with community members

43

Restrain: This represents one of the traditional purposes for police: the __________. It should also include restraint of __________ and the prevention of one citizen from annoying or doing damage to another.

apprehension of criminals

mentally ill people

44

Recover:
A major effort by police is the _________. This is one area in which the police provide a very useful service to the community.....

recovery of stolen property and its return to the citizens

45

Repress:
There are two important elements necessary for a crime to take place. First, the individual must have the ________ the crime; second, the ___________ itself for the satisfaction of this desire. Police have traditionally attempted to prevent crime by reducing__________ to commit the crime. The _________ is justified by many police managers as a means of reaching this end.

desire to commit

opportunity must present

the opportunity of the individual

random patrol concept

46

Repress:
In recent years, drug- control and gang interdiction strategies have included _______. It also includes the use of intervention techniques such as _________.

targeting "hot spots."

“ stop and frisk,”

47

Reinforce: This activity is designed to reinforce __________ and __________ and to encourage __________.

reinforce good citizenship and respect for the law and to encourage citizens to aid and assist officers and the agency

48

In responding to this traditional purpose, police agencies have tended to ________ and to focus on ________ to the detriment of effective service to _______. Although these are legitimate purposes, these purposes are not broad enough to contain the range of legitimate police activity. Each officer should consider himself or herself a __________.

create special units

response activities

the public

community relations specialist

49

Defining the Organization:
To carry out these six principles (the 6 R's), it is necessary to come to an understanding of _________. Here, we are looking for a definition of organization, which is a group of people organized to do something, and that will fit the requirements of both management and operations.

what the organization itself is all about

50

Defining the Organization:
Thus, any concept of organization from the perspective of current practices and theory is basically _______. The reason is that if any police organization is to operate efficiently, ____________to carry out tasks on the job and to put out that little extra effort that makes organizations work.

people oriented

people have to be motivated

51

THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATION: Mechanical Approach As discussed by Jones, the mechanistic structure is “designed to induce people to behave in __________ways”

predictable, accountable

52

Mechanical Approach:

In these structures, which in theory apply to both the military and police organizations, there is close s______, much a_______, and I______ flows up and down the organization. U_______ is accomplished by specialized work assigned and great coordination.

there is close supervision, much accountability, and information flows up and down the organization. Unity of action is accomplished by specialized work assigned and great coordination.

53

The _________ uses bodies to fill boxes in an organization chart.

mechanical approach

54

Organic or Humanist Approach The organic or humanistic theorists view the organization is terms of w_____, d__________ to many levels of the organization, and much f_________ contact.

work groups, delegation of authority to many levels of the organization, and much face- to- face contact.

55

Organic or Humanist Approach:
This definition emphasizes ________.

the people who make up an organization and through whom all work is done

56

This h____________ is used in most professional organizations, where a particular skill must be developed at a particular level with the exact knowledge needed to fill a position. This is often the norm for many technical groups whereby workers are connected via the Internet.

Humanist approach

57

Basic to any modern organization is the concept of _______. Police organizations, for example, are _________. Although the term has acquired negative overtones, it is the basis for ________ and a rational approach to administration and organization.

bureaucracy

bureaucracies

modern civil service

58

A modern bureaucracy depends on having a ______ to pay salaries. The society also must subscribe to the view that success and rewards should be based on _______ and _____ rather than on the condition of birth.

money economy

merit and hard work

59

________ provides stability in the delivery of governmental services, even though the political machinery may be in turmoil.

Bureaucracy

60

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
1. Regular activities are distributed in a ______ as official duties.

fixed way

61

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
2. Authority to give commands is distributed in a _____, and coercive means of ______ are defined by rules in a consistent manner.

stable way

sanction

62

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:

3. Only those who have generally regulated ______ to serve are employed.

qualifications

63

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
4. _________ are ordered by administrative regulations.

Fixed jurisdictions

64

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
5. An official hierarchical system of superiors and subordinates, _________ organized, exists.
.

monocratically

65

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
6. Management is based on _________, normally called “ _____.”

written documents

the files

66

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
7. _________ of management requires thorough, technical, and expert training and knowledge.

Specialized officer

67

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
8. __________ are a. stable, b. exhaustive, and c. learnable.

Generalized rules

68

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
9. Knowledge of the rules represents special technical knowledge that ______ possess ( in modern society, accountants and lawyers are special officials who are rule experts).

officials

69

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
10. Office holding is a ______ and a ________.

vocation and a career

70

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
11. _______ have more status than the governed: Insulting ______ is proscribed by law with appropriate sanctions.

Officials

officials

71

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
12. Bureaucratic officials are appointed by a _________, not elected.

superior authority (civil examination)

72

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
sanctions.
13. ______ in the job is for life.

Tenure

73

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
14. Employees receive regular ________________.

pecuniary compensation (a regular and fixed salary)

74

The following are, in shortened form, the general rules that Weber felt should govern and define a modern bureaucracy:
15. Officials have a career in the ______.

hierarchy