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1

Where is the phrenic nerve?

Descending across the lateral borders of the pericardium

2

Where is the pericardial cavity?

Between the 2 layers of serous pericardium

3

What is the anterior surface of the heart covered by?

Epicardium

4

What does the epicardium do?

Secretes pericardial fluid into pericardial cavity

5

What happens if the pericardial cavity fills with blood?

The pressure around the heart can prevent cardiac contraction (cardiac tamponade)

6

What is it called when the pericardial cavity fills with blood?

Haemopericardium

7

What does parietal mean?

Something in contact with body walls or organs

8

What is the epicardium also known as?

Visceral serous pericardium

9

3 layers of the pericardium?

Fibrous pericardium
Parietal serous pericardium
Visceral serous pericardium

10

What is pericardiocentesis?

Draining fluid from the pericardial cavity

11

How is the needle inserted in pericardiocentesis?

Via infrasternal angle
Directed superoposteriorly
Aspirating continuously

12

What is the transverse pericardial sinus?

Space within the pericardial cavity, posterosuperiorly
Lies posterior to the pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta

13

What is the transverse pericardial sinus used for?

Cardiac surgeons use it to identify and isolate the great vessels in order to commence cardiopulmonary bypass

14

What does pericardium look like in diagrams?

Grey sack surrounding heart

15

What does pulmonary trunk divide into?

Right and left pulmonary arteries

16

Biggest looking vessel? and ones either side of it

Aorta then pulmonary trunk then superior vena cava

17

What lies inferior to the aorta etc?

Pulmonary veins (4) and then inferior vena cava is a bit more inferior

18

Clinically important surfaces of the heart?

Anterior (sternocostal)
Diaphragmatic (inferior)
Base (posterior)

19

Clinically important borders of the heart?

Right (lateral) border
Left (lateral) border
Inferior border (normally on right ventricle)
Superior border

20

Clinically important point on heart?

Apex

21

Where do you palpate the apex beat?

5th left intercostal space in the mid-clavicular line

22

What are pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries carrying?

Deoxygenated blood to lungs

23

What does the brachiocephalic trunk divide into?

Right and left subclavian vein

24

What is an auricle?

Extension of right atrium (it's like an overfill area)

25

What does the coronary groove show?

Where right atrium becomes ventricle

26

What is on either side of the trachea?

Right and left carotid artery

27

Anterior inter-ventricular groove?

Separates ventricles and a branch of the left coronary artery is in it

28

What is in the coronary groove?

Right coronary artery

29

What does the coronary groove indicate?

Surface marking for the tricuspid valve

30

Base surface?

All of the posterior left atrium