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Flashcards in Normal structure & Function Deck (119)
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1

Main function of Heart?

Pump blood to all organs and tissues in body

2

Bloods role?

Oxygen and nutrients to tissues and removes waste products

3

Prime function of right heart?

Via the pulmonary trunk drives the low pressure pulmonary circulation

4

Prime function of left heart?

Via the aorta drives high pressure systemic circulation

5

How many pumps does heart have?

Two

6

High pressure pump?

On the left side. Forces blood to flow to other tissues around body and then back to the heart

7

Low pressure pump?

On the right side. Forces blood to flow to the lungs and back to the heart.

8

Blood circulates body via?

Arteries

9

Blood returns to the heart via?

Veins

10

Features of Arteries?

The walls of larger central arteries are elastic and recoil to help propel blood
The walls of smaller arteries and arterioles are much more muscular and are mainly responsible for peripheral resistance to blood flow.

11

Features of veins?

Thin walls and easily distensible- act as a major reservoir of blood
Larger veins have valves that support unidirectional blood flow- important during standing and exercise

12

Capillaries structure and function?

Tiny vessels forming a network linking arterial and venous blood flow. In this gases and nutrients or waste are exchanged at a cellular level

13

Capillary walls?

Thin single layer of endothelial cells
Permeable to small molecules facilitating exchange of hormones, fluid and nutrients, electrolytes etc between interstitial fluid and blood.

14

What does the lymphatic system do?

It comprises of a network of thin walled vessels which enable excess interstitial fluid to return to the circulation

15

Where does the heart lie?

Lies in the chest cavity, deep to the sternum within the rib cage, between the lungs, superior to the diaphragm in the mediastinum.

16

Where is the base of your heart?

Closer to the head than the apex

17

Describe the position of the apex of the heart?

Lowest most lateral point of heart
5th left intercostal space just medial to the mid-clavicular line

18

4 reasons it is clinically important to know the location of the heart?

-It directs you to where you could normally find the apex beat
-Indicates listening areas on chest wall for where you could best hear heart sounds and murmurs
-Helps you know were best to place electrodes when recording a trace of hearts electrical activity
-Helps you know where to put pressure in CPR

CAME-
CPR
Apex
Murmurs & heart sounds
ECG- electrodes

19

Coronary Sulcus

Groove on the external surface of the heart that separates atria from ventricles

20

What do superior and inferior vena cavae do?

Drain blood from upper and lower parts of the body into the right atrium

21

What does aorta do?

Carries oxygenated blood from left ventricle to body

22

What do pulmonary arteries do?

Carry systemic venous blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

23

Where do the left and right coronary arteries rise from?

Root of the aorta just above the aortic valve, and lie within the coronary sulcus

24

Why is the left ventricular wall thicker than the right?

Pumps blood against high pressure in the systemic circulation, whereas RV pumps blood into low pressure pulmonary circulation

25

What are valves in heart for?

To maintain unidirectional blood flow between chambers and between chambers and vessels

26

How many pair of valves does heart have?

2- atrioventricular and semilunar

27

AV valves?

Atrioventricular valves
Located between atria and ventricles
Right side AV valve has 3 cusps and is called tricuspid
Left side valve has 2 cusps and is called mitral valve

28

SL valves?

Semilunar valves
Located within aortic and pulmonary trunk

Valve cusps are half moon shaped

They are called the aortic and pulmonary valves

29

Cardiac skeleton?

Consists of strong fibrous framework that prevents main components of heart pulling themselves apart during contraction. Heart valves are also anchored by this.

30

Were does drainage of the lymphatic system occur?

Right and left subclavian veins