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Flashcards in Valvular Disease Deck (58)
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1

What does a clinical diagnosis in cardiology include?

Physical examination- murmurs and signs of heart failure
History - restriction and functional capacity
Investigations-
non-invasive,= echo
invasive = Cardiac catherization

2

What type of symptoms are characteristic of valvular disease?

Exertional symptoms

3

Clinical history for valvular heart disease?

Chest pain
Breathlessness
Collapse/Dizzy spells

4

Cardiac breathlessness and valvular disease?

Usually related to activity
Often associated with ankle activity
Orthopnoea - SOB lying down
PND- attack of severe SOB and ocughing that wakes someone up

5

Functional classification of Valvular disease?

Class 1- No limitation
Class 2- Slight limitation of ordinary activity
Class 3- Marked limitation of less than ordinary activity
Class 4- Severe limitation of minimal activity or at rest

6

What is involved in a cardiology clinical exam?

-General appearance
-Arterial pulse- radial, carotid
-Venous pulse- JVP
-Palpation- apex, parasternal heave
-Auscultation- Heart sounds and murmurs

7

3 signs of right heart failure?

Raised JVP
Pitting oedema
Hepatic congestion

8

Describe the apex beat in mitral stenosis?

Tapping

9

When is the apex beat displaced and diffuse?

Left ventricular dilation (volume overload)

10

Describe the apex beat in left ventricular hypertrophy?>

Heaving
Maybe displaced
Pressure overload

11

How to find the parasternal heave and what situation would it be present in?

Hand to the left of sternum
Right ventricular overload- cor pulmonale, pulmonary hypertension

12

What is a cardiac murmur?

Audible turbulence of blood flow
Can be either innocent or pathological

13

Process and points for describing a murmur?

Systole or diastole
What type of murmur
Where is it loudest
Where does it radiate to
What grade of murmur
Influenced by respiration?

14

Process and points for describing a murmur?

Systole or diastole
What type of murmur
Where is it loudest
Where does it radiate to
What grade of murmur
Influenced by respiration?

15

What happens in the first heart sound?

Mitral and tricuspid valve shut
Start of systole

16

What happen sin 2nd heart sound?

Pulmonary and aortic valve shut
Start of diastole

17

Phonogram of murmurs showing
-Normal
-Aortic stenosis
- Mitral regurgitation
- Aortic regurgitation
-Mitral stenosis
-Patient ductus arteriosus

**************

18

Types of systolic murmurs?

Pansystolic
Ejection systolic

19

Types of diastolic murmur?

Early diastolic murmur
Mid diastolic

20

Pansystolic murmur diagram?

*

21

Ejection systolic murmur diagram?

**

22

Early diastolic murmur diagram?

**

23

Mid diastolic murmur diagram?

****

24

What condition does a murmur radiate to the carotids?

Aortic stenosis

25

Where does a mitral regurgitation murmur radiate to?

Axilla

26

Grading of murmurs?

1= Very quiet
2= Quiet- easy to hear
3= Loud
4= Loud with a thrill
5= Very loud with a thrill
6= Loud- audible without stethoscope

27

Which murmurs are louder with respiration?

Right sided murmurs

28

What murmur has a 2nd heart sound splitting?

Aortic stenosis

29

Third heart sound splitting?

Aortic regurgitation

30

What heart sound is split in mitral stenosis?

4th heart sound