Pathology of Hypertension Flashcards Preview

Cardio > Pathology of Hypertension > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology of Hypertension Deck (29)
Loading flashcards...
1

Definition of hypertension?

Disorder in which the level of sustained arterial pressure is higher than expected for the age, sex and race of the individual

2

What does WHO accept as a high level of blood pressure?

>140/90 mmHg

3

White coat hypertension?

High blood pressure at the Doctors office that returns to a normal level in other environments like home. Thought to be caused by stress of seeing doctor or could be indicative of future long term problems.

4

Labile Hypertension?

Unexpected changes in blood pressure

5

What does hypertension cause?

Cardiac failure

6

What is hypertension a risk for?

Atheroma Renal failure Cerebral haemorrhage Sudden cardiac failure

7

Brief epidemiology of Hypertension?

Varies between countries Higher in back population Lower in south pacific Familial tendency Rises with age

8

Classification of hypertension in respect to A) Aetiology B) Clinicopathology

A) Primary or secondary B) Benign or malignant

9

Equation for BP

Cardiac output x peripheral resistance

10

Factors to consider for cardiac output?

Heart Rate Contractility Blood volume

11

Factors to consider for peripheral resistance?

Constrictors (Angiotensin 2, catecholamines) Dilators (Nitric oxide, prostoglandins

12

Most common type of hypertension?

Primary hypertension

13

Primary hypertension?

No obvious cause Due to genetic factors Salt intake Protein intake RAAS

14

What does an increase in dietary salt lead to?

Increased BP

15

Salt sensitive hypertension?

It is some cases of primary hypertension Controlled by reduced dietary salt In renal diseases secondary hypertension is usually salt sensitive

16

Underlying diseases with secondary hypertension?

Renal disease Endocrine Aortic Renal artery stenosis Drug therapy

17

Why renal diseases are associated with secondary hypertension?

Reduced renal blood flow Excess renin release Salt and water overload

18

Endocrine causes of secondary hypertension?

Adrenal gland hyperfunction Conn's syndrome- XS aldosterone Cushing's syndrome- XS corticosteroid Phaeochromocytoma- XS noradrenaline

19

Benign hypertension is not a cause of serious life threatening morbidity. True or False?

FALSE. Cause of serious life threatening morbidity

20

What does benign hypertension eventually cause?

Left ventricular hypertrophy Congestive cardiac failure Increases atheroma Increases aortic aneurysm rupture Renal disease Aortic dissection

21

Hypertension and the heart?

Left ventricular hypertrophy -Increased LV load -Poor perfusion -Interstitial fibrosis -Micro-infarcts -Diastolic dysfunction

22

Outcomes of left ventricular hypertrophy?

Sudden cardiac death

Cardiac failure

23

Hypersensitive heart picture

24

Whats this?

Complicated atheroma

25

What doubles the risk of MI?

Every 10mmHg of diastolic pressure above 85mmHg

26

Every _mmHg of diastolic pressure above __  doubles risk of _____.

8mmHg

85 

Stroke 

27

Malignant hypertension?

Serious life threatening condition- Rare

Diastolic pressure >130-140

Can develop from benign primary or secondary 

Needs to be treated urgently 

28

What does malignant hypertension cause?

Cerebral oedema 

Acute renal failure 

Acute heart failure 

Headache and cerebral haemorrhage 

Blood vessels show fibrinoid necrosis and endarteritis proliferans of their walls 

 

29

Hypertension is usually asymptomatic? True or False?

True