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1

What two systems does the circulatory system involve?

The cardiovascular system The lymphatic vaacular system

2

What is the cardiovascular system made up of?

Closed system consisting of heart, arteries, capillaries and veins

3

Roles of the circulatory system?

-Transport of nutrients and oxygen to the tissues -Transport of CO2 and other metabolic waste from the tissues - Temperature regulation - Distribution of hormones and immune cells - Reproductive function in males- penile erection

4

Basic 3 layer structure to a blood vessel?

Tunica Intima - most inner Tunica Media Tunica adventitia

5

Description of tunica intima?

Single layer of squamous epithelial cells termed endothelial cells, supported by a basal lamina and a thin layer of connective tissue- It is the inner most layer

6

Description of tunica media?

Made up predominantly of smooth muscle Thickness of this layer varies tremendously

7

Description of tunica adventitia?

Made up of supporting connective tissue- outer most layer

8

What is the tunica intima separated from the tunica media by?

Layer of elastic tissue called the internal elastic membrane 

9

What is the tunica adventitia separated from the tunica media by?

Layer of elastic tissue called th eexternal elastic membrane

10

What colour do elastic fibres stain?

Black

11

What are the very largest arteries called? And why are they termed this?

Elastic arteries. Because they have many sheets of elastic fibres in their tunica media to provide elastic recoil

12

Describe the make up of arterioles?

Have only one or 2 layers of smooth msucle in the tunica media and almost no adventitia. They are particularly important in controlling blood flow in tissue.

13

What are capillaries essentially composed of?

Endothelial cells and a basal lamina 

14

What do capillaries have at intervals just outsude of the basal lamina?

Pericytes - connective tissue cells that have contractile properties 

15

Wher are continuous capillaries found?

In muscle, connective tissue, lung, skin & nerves 

16

Where are fenestrated capillaries found?

Mucosa of the gut, endocrine glands and glomeruli of the kidney 

17

Where are discontinuous capillaries found?

Liver spleen and bone marrow 

18

Description of discontinuous capillaries?

Large gaps through which macromolecules can fit , in some cases even cells can fit through aswell 

 

Basal lamina is discontinuous or not present 

19

What is microvasculature?

Small arterioles connecting to postcapillary venule through this network of metarterioles, thoroughfare channels and capillaries.

 

 

20

What helps control flood flow through microvasculature?

Pre-capillary sphinctors - composed of smooth muscle at the beginning of the capillary

21

What do capillary networks drain into?

Post capillary venules 

22

Describe post capillary venules?

Endothelial lined and contain a thiin layer of connective tissue and occasional pericytes - important sites for exchange 

23

When is a post capillary venule described as a venule?

When smooth muscle cells start to be acquired in the tunica media layer. 

24

Describe veins?

Thin tunica media- few layers of smooth muscle - markedly thinner than in an artery 

Large veins have- thick tunica adventitia - with bundles of longitudnally orientated smooth muscle 

Veins are flexible- can accommodate expansion 

Have a tunica intima 

25

26

Difference between large veins and small/medium veins?

Large veins (HPC/VC) have bundles of longitudnally orientated smooth muscle cells 

 

Small/medium veins have Valves- inwards extensions of the tunica intima 

27

What of these is a small artery and which is a small vein?

A= small artery 

B = Small vein 

28

3 Layers of the heart?

Endocardium - inner layer 

Myocardium - Middle layer 

Epicardium- Outer layer 

29

Layers of e heart from the outside in?

Adipose tissue 

Fibrous pericardium 

                                                                 } Pericardium

Parietal layer of serous pericardium 

Pericardial cavity 

Visceral layer of serous pericardium 

Epicardium 

Myocardium 

Endocardium 

 

30

What does the endocardium do?

Lines the entire inner surface of the heart including the valves