Atheroma and Its Complications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Atheroma and Its Complications Deck (22)
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1

Synonyms of Atheroma?

Atherosclerosis
Hardening of the arteries
Coronary artery disease
Ischaemic heary disease

2

Causes of atheroma?

Diabetes
Hypertension
Cigarette smoking
Hyperlipidemia
Age (Old)
Males
Genetics

3

How does atheroma occur?

Primary endothelial injury
Accumulation of macrophages and lipids
Migration of smooth muscle cell
Increase in size

4

What happens as atheromatous plaques increase in size?

Blood flow is compromised

5

Progression of atheromatous plaques over time? Complications?

Fatty streak turns into
Fibrofatty plaque turns into
Complicated plaque

Complications- associated with further loss of luminal patency and arterial wall weakness

6

When is atheromatous narrowing of an artery likely to produce a critical disease?

It is the only artery supplying an organ or tissue
Artery diameter is very small
Overall blood flow is reduced

7

Complications of atheroma?

Stenosis
Thrombosis
Aneurysm
Dissection
Embolism

8

What happens in arterial stenosis?

Narrowing of the arterial lumen
Reduced elasticity
Reduced flow in systole
Tissue ischaemia

9

Clinical affects of cardiac ischaemia?

Reduced exercise tolerance
Angina
Unstable angina
MI
Cardiac failure

10

What does coronary stenosis produce?

Cardiac ischameia

11

What happens in cardiac fibrosis?

Loss of cardiac myocytes
Replacement by fibrous tissue
Loss of contractility
Reduced elasticity and filling

12

Conditions cause by arterial stenosis in coronary arteries?

TIA
Stroke
Vascular dimentia

13

conditions caused when Arterial stenosis in renal arteries?

Hypertension
Renal failure

14

Conditions which arise from arterial stenosis in peripheral arteries?

Claudication
Foot/leg ischaemia

15

Clinical effects of thrombsis?

MI
Cerebral Infarction
Renal infarction
Intestinal infarction

16

What is an aneurysm?

abnormal and persistent dilation of an artery due to a weakness in its wall

17

Commonest site for aneurysm?

Abdominal aorta

18

Complications of an aneurysm?

Rupture (6cm)
Thrombosis
Embolism
Pressure erosion of adjacent structures
Infection

19

What is arterial dissection?

Splitting within the media by flowing blood

20

Risk factors for aortic dissection?

Middle age +- atheroma

21

Associations with aortic dissection?

Atheroma
Hypertension
Trauma
Coarctation
Marfan's
Pregnancy

22

How does an embolys occur?

Both superadded thrombus and plaque material may break off and embolise