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Flashcards in CNS Deck (68):
1

How is Neural tube defects detected

Elevated AFP

2

Interventricular foramen of Monro drains

CSF from Lateral ventricles into the 3rd ventricle

3

Foramina of Magendie and Luschka drain

CSF from 4th ventricle into subarachnoid space

4

Dandy-Walker malformation is

Congenital failure of the cerebellar vermis to develop

5

Dandy-Walker malformation presents as

Massively dilated 4th venticle with an absent cerebellum

6

What level does Syringomyelia occur

C8-T1

7

Syringomyelia presents as

Loss of pain and temperature with sparing of fine touch and position sense (cape like) due to involvement of anterior white commissure of the spinothalamic tract

8

Poliomyelitis is

Damage to the anterior motor horn due to poliovirus infection

9

Poliomyeltis presents with

Lower motor neuron signs:

  1. Flaccid paralysis with muscle atrophy
  2. Fasciculations
  3. Weakness with decreased muscle tone
  4. Impaired reflexes
  5. Negative Babinski

10

Werdnig-Hoffman disease genetic

AR

11

Werdnig-Hoffman disease is

Inherited degeneration of the anterior motor horn

12

Werdnig-Hoffman disease presents

Same as poliomyelitis

Floppy baby

13

ALS is

Degenerative disorder of upper and lower motor neurons of the corticospinal tract

14

Upper motor neuron signs

Spastic paralysis with hyperreflexia

Increased muscle tone

Positive Babinski sign

15

Familial ALS is due to

Zinc-copper superoxide dismutate (SOD1) mutation

16

Freidreich ataxia is

Denerative disorder of the cerebellum and spinal cord

17

Friedreich ataxia is due to

AR GAA repeat in the Frataxin gene

18

Degeneration of cerebellum leads to

Ataxia

19

Degeneration of multiple spinal cord tracts seen in Friedreich ataxia leads to

  1. Loss of vibratory sense and proprioception
  2. Muscle weakness in lower extremities
  3. Loss of DTR

20

Friedreich ataxia associated with 

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

21

Spinothalamic tract

Pain and temperature sensations

22

Dorsal column-medial lemniscus

  1. Pressure
  2. Touch
  3. Vibration
  4. Proprioception

23

Lateral corticospinal 

Voluntary movement

24

Hypothalamospinal

Sympathetic input of the face

25

First order neurons of Spinothalamic tract

  1. Peripheral nerves to posterior horn
  2. Cell body is in dorsal root ganglion

26

Second order neurons of spinothalamic tract

From posterior horn, immediately crosses over in anterior white commissure and ascends via spinothalamic tract to thalamus

27

First order neurons of dorsal column-medial lemniscus

Peripheral nerves to medulla via dorsal column

Cell body is in dorsal root ganglion

28

Second order neurons of Dorsal column-medial lemniscus

From medulla crosses over and ascends via medial lemniscus to thalamus

29

Most common cause of meningitis in Neonates

  1. Group B Strep
  2. E. coli
  3. Listeria monocytogenes

30

Most common cause of meningitis in Children and teenagers

N. meningitidis

31

Most common cause of meningitis in adults

S. pneumoniae

32

Most common cause of meningitis in nonvaccinated infants

H. infleunza

33

CSF finding ins bacterial meningitis

PMN with decrease CSF glucose

34

CSF findings in viral meningitis

Lymphocytes with normal CSF glucose

35

CSF findings in fungal meningitis

Lymphocytes with decreased CSF glucose

36

Subfalcine herniation involves

Displacement of the cingulate gyrus under the falx cerebri

37

How does Subfalcine herniation lead to infarct

Compresses anterior cerebral artery

38

Uncal herniation involves

Displacement of the temporal lobe uncus under the tentorium cerebelli

39

Uncal herniation causes

  1. Compression of CN3: eyes down and out
  2. Compression of posterior cerebral artery: infarction of occipital lobe (contralateral homonymous hemianopsia)
  3. Rupture of paramedian artery: Duret (brainstem) hemorrhage

40

Metachromatic leukodystrophy is due to

a deficiency of arylsulfatase

41

Metachromatic leukodystrophy genetics

AR

42

Krabbe disease

Leukodystrophy due to deficiency of galactocerebroside β-galactosidase

43

Krabbe disease genetics

AR

44

Adrenoleukodytrophy due to

Impaired addition of coenzyme A to long chain FA

45

Adrenoleukodystrophy genetics

X-linked

46

What HLA is MS

HLA-DR2

47

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is due to

Persistent infection of the brain by Measles virus

48

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is due to

JC virus infection of oligodendrocytes

49

Progressive multifuocal leukoencephalopathy presents with

Rapidly progressive neurologic signs

50

Central pontine myelinolysis is due to

Rapid intravenous correction of hyponatremia

51

Central pontine myelinolysis presents as

Locked-in

52

Pick disease is

Degnerative disease of the frontal and temporal cortex

53

Pick bodies are

Round aggregates of tau proteins in neurons of the cortex

54

Lewy bodies are

Inculsion of α-synuclein in parkinsons

55

Huntington genetic

AD CAG repeat

56

Normal pressure hydrocephalus triad

  1. Urinary incontinence (wet)
  2. Gait instability (wobbly)
  3. Dementia (wacky)

57

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presents

Spongiform

  1. Rapidly progressive demintia with ataxia
  2. Startle myoclonus

58

Meningioma is

Benign tumor of arachnoid cells

59

Meningioma imaging reveals

Round mass attached to dura that does not invade the cortex

60

Meningioma Histology shows

Whorled pattern

Psammoma bodies

61

Which CNS tumor expresses estrogen receptors

Meningioma

62

Schwannoma presents with

Loss of hearing and tinnitus due to CN8 involvement

63

Schwannoma tumor cells are positive for

S-100

64

When Schwannoma bilateral, think

Neurofibromatosis type 2

65

Oligodendroglioma appearance on biopsy

Fried-egg

66

Rosenthal fibers are

Thick eosinophilic process of astrocytes seen in astrocytoma

67

Homer-Wright rosettes are seen in

Medulloblastoma

68

Perivascular pseduorosettes are seen in

Ependymoma