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Flashcards in Cognition Deck (16)
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1

Cogintion

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating

2

Concept

A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people

3

Prototype

A mental image or best example of a category

4

Algorithm

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

5

Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently

6

Insight

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

7

Confirmation bias

A tendency to search for information that confirms one's precognitions

8

Fixation (cognition)

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective

9

Mental set

A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way (often one that has been successful in the past)

10

Functional fixedness

The tendency to to think if things only in terms of their usual functions

11

Representative heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent particular prototypes

12

Availability heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

13

Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct

14

Framing

The way an issue is posed (10% died vs. 90% lived)

15

Belief bias

The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning

16

Belief preservance

Clinging to one's initial conceptions after he basis on which they were formed has been discredited