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AP PSYCH > Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Personality Deck (40)
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1

Empirically derived test

A test developed by testing a pool of items then selecting those that discriminate between groups

2

Psychoanalysis

Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts

3

Learned helplessness

The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

4

Self esteem

One’s feelings of high or low self-worth

5

Projection

A defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

6

Free association

A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind

7

Projective test

A personality test that provide ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics

8

Collective unconscious

Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces for our species’ history

9

Self-actualization

The ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem in achieved

10

Self-concept

All our thoughts and feeling about ourselves

11

Personality inventory

A questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors

12

Self-serving bias

A readiness to perceive oneself favorably

13

Repression

The basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from conscious

14

External locus of control

The perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determines one’s fate

15

Id

Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives

16

Oedipus complex

A boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

17

Spotlight effect

Overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance and blunders

18

Unconditional positive regard

An attitude of total acceptance toward another person

19

Displacement

A defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person (inappropriate sublimation)

20

Social cognitive perspective

Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context

21

Identification

The process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos

22

Trait

A characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition to feel and act as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports

23

Ego

The largely conscious part of the personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality

24

Internal locus of control

The perception that one controls one’s own fate

25

Unconscious

A reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories

26

Psychosexual stages

Childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

27

Fixation

A lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved

28

Reaction formation

Defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites

29

Superego

The part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations

30

Positive psychology

The scientific study of optimal human functioning