Cognitive Complaints and Impairment Flashcards Preview

PSYCH > Cognitive Complaints and Impairment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognitive Complaints and Impairment Deck (54):
1

cognitive impairment can be

primary manifestation of disorder (altzheimer's disease)

secondary manifestation and source of excess disability (delirium, medications, brain injury, HIV)

2

major DA tracts

nigostriatal (extra pyramidal motor)
mesolimic
mesocortical (cognition, emotion, substance abuse, psychosis)

3

DA agonists

movement
depression

4

DA antags

psychosis

5

where is NE synthesized

locus coreulus

6

where does LC project to

cortex
limbic
RAS
spinal cord

7

adrenergic agents

depression
MAO-I
tricyclics
venlafaxine

8

adrenergic antagonists are for

tremor
anxiety
beta blockers

9

setonergic agents used for

dpression
migraine

10

5HT synthesized in

raphe nucleus

11

5HT project to

cortex
limbic system
striatum
cerebellum
blood vessels

12

Ach synthesized in

basal forbrain (nucleus of basalis of Meynert)

13

Ach projets to

olfactory bulb
hippocampus
amygdala
cortical association areas
==>ANS, NMJ

14

anticholinergic agents

movement disorder

15

cholinesterase inhibitors

Alteimers
organophosphates
nerve gases

16

GABA A binding sites for

benzos
barbiturates

17

GABA B

baclofen

18

three attentional networks

alerting
orientating
executive

19

alerting brain

thalamic
R frontal and partietal activation

20

Orienting brain

superior colliculus
frontal eye fields
temporoparietal
parietal activation

21

executive brain

anterior cingluate
DLPFC

22

episodic memory

minutes to years
explicit
declarative
ex) short story, what you had for dinner last name, what you did on your last bday
--medial temporal lobes, anterior thalamic nucleus mammillary body, fornix, PFC

23

semantic memory

minutes to years
explicit
declaritive
ex) knwing who the first president was
inferolateral temporal lobe

24

procedural memory

minutes to years
explicit/implicit
nondeclaritive
ex) driving a car
basal ganglia cerebellum, supplementary motor area

25

working memory

seconds to minutes
explicit
declarative
ex) phonological- phone number in your head before dialing-PFC, Broca's areas, wernicke
ex) spatial- mentally following a route or rotating an object in your mind-PFC, visual-association areas

26

3 NT of arousal

cholinergic
catecholaminergic
glutamatergic

27

executive functions

volition/initiative
planning
purposeful action
performance

28

dorsolateral PFC

executive function
working memory

29

lateral orbitofrontal

social intellifence

30

medial/ventral frontal lobe

apathy, amotivation

31

anterior cingulate

akinetic mutism
abulia

32

FDA approved medication in cognition treatment

none with altz and ADD being major expections

33

prominence of altz

11% in individuals >65
32-50% in individuals >85

34

Donepezil/Aricept lass

acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

35

adverse rxns donepezil

nausea/vomiting
sinus brady
1st degree AV block

36

donepezil used for

altz

37

donepezil avaiable as

single daily dose

38

Memantine not recommended

alone

39

Galantamine is available as

extended-release capsule

40

rivastigmine is available as

patch

41

methylphenidate class

CNS stimulant

42

methylphenidate action

blocks reuptake of NE and DA
may also enhance release of catecholamines

43

methylphenidate adverse reactions

nervousness
insomnia
abuse potential

44

do not use methylphenidate with

MAOIs

45

methylphenidate may increase effects of

tricyclics
antiparkinsoniam agents

46

what frequently works when methylphenidate wont and what does it benefit in addition?

dextroamphetamine

cognition, depression, anergia impaired motivation

47

Atomoxetine class

selective NE reuptake inhibitor

48

Atomoxetine action

inhibition of NE transporter

49

atmoxetine metbaolism

CYP2D6 (interactswith quinidine)

50

atomoxetine adverse reactions

liver toxicity
suicidal ideation

51

Amantadine and Memantine

-moderate-affinity uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists
-dopamine agonists
-increase DA release
-decrease presyn DA reuptake
-stimulate DA receptors
-enhance post-syn dopamine R sensitity

52

neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors

atomoxetine (strattera)-ADD
duloxetine (cymbalta)-antidepressant

53

Modafinil uses

excessive daytime somnolence in patients with narcolepsy
-may have a role in treatment of post-TBI fatigue and impairment

54

treatment of impaired cognition has two major forms

catecholaminergic agents
pro-cholinergic agents