Congential Heart Disease Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Cardiovascular System > Congential Heart Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Congential Heart Disease Deck (92)
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31

What are the haemodynamic effects of ASD’s?

Increased pulmonary blood flow

32

What is the result of an increased pulmonary blood flow?

Right ventricular volume overload, leading to eventual right heart failure

33

Is a patent foramen ovale a true ASD?

No

34

What is the prevalence of a patent foramen ovale?

May be present in ~20% of the population

35

What is the result of a patent foramen ovale?

Generally, clinically silent

36

Why is a patent foramen ovale generally clinically silent?

Since higher left atrial pressure causes functional closure of the flap valve

37

How can a patent forman ovale cause problems?

It may be a route by which venous embolism reaches the systemic circulation, if the pressure on the right side of the heart increases even transiently

38

What is it called when a patent foreman ovale causes a venous embolism in the systemic circulation?

A paradoxical embolism

39

What is a ventricular septum defect?

An opening in the interventricular septum

40

Where can a ventricular septum defect occur?

At any point

41

Where does a ventricular septum defect most commonly occur?

In the membranous portion of the septum

42

What are the haemodynamic effects of a ventricular septum defect?

Left to right shunt

43

Why does a ventricular septum defect cause a left to right shunt?

Because the left ventricular pressure is much higher than the right

44

What is the result of the left to right shunt?

Left ventricular volume overload, causing pulmonary venous congestion

45

What does pulmonary venous congestion eventually lead to?

Pulmonary hypertension

46

What is the ductus arteriosus?

A vessel that exists in the foetus to shunt blood from pulmonary artery to aorta before lungs are functional

47

What should happen to the ductus arteriosus shortly after birth?

It should close

48

Why does the ductus arteriosus close shortly after birth?

As pressure in the pulmonary artery drops following perfusion of lungs

49

What does failure of the ductus arteriosus to close cause?

Patent ductus arteriosus

50

In what direction would blood flow through the ductus arteriosus after birth?

From the aorta to the pulmonary artery

51

Why would blood flow from the aorta to the pulmonary artery if the ductus arteriosus remained open after birth?

Because its going from a high pressure to a low pressure

52

What is heard when the ductus arteriosus is patent?

A mechanical murmur is heard constantly throughout systole/diastole

53

Why can a mechanical murmur be heard when there is a patent ductus arteriosus?

Because pressure in the aorta is always greater than in the pulmonary artery

54

Does left to right shunting of blood cause cyanosis?

No

55

What does the extend of the problem caused by a patent ductus arteriosus depend on?

The degree of shunting

56

What does chronic left to right shunting lead to?

Vascular remodelling of pulmonary circulation, and an increase in pulmonary resistance

57

What happens if the pulmonary circulation increases beyond that of the systemic circulation due to a patent ductus arteriosus?

The shunt will reverse direction

58

What is it called when the shunt caused by a patent ductus arteriosus reverses direction?

Eisenmeger syndrome

59

What is coarction of the aorta?

Narrowing of the aortic lumen in the region of the liganentum arteriosum

60

What makes up the liganentum arteriosum?

The former ductus arteriosus