Coronary heart disease Flashcards Preview

Geography - population and the environment > Coronary heart disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Coronary heart disease Deck (25):
1

what is CHD ?

a non communicable disease

2

factors affecting non-communicable diseases?

-increased car use
-easy accessibility to low cost fatty foods
-more high fat and high sugar foods
-prolonged periods of inactivity
-greater use of alcohol and tobacco

3

what is a sedentary lifestyle?

A type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity

4

reasons why people are less physically active...

-changes in the type of jobs people do
-longer working hours and greater commuting

5

coronary heart disease

the leading cause of death worldwide in 2015
90,000 deaths per year in UK.
more than 2.2 million in UK living with CHD.

6

what is CHD?

begins when cholesterol fatty material and calcium build up in the arteries

7

what are the symptoms of CHD.

shortness of breath
chest pain
jaw pain
sweating
nausea

8

CHD risk factors

smoking
high blood pressure
high cholesterol
diabetes
obesity
lack of exercise
diet high in fat

9

links to the environment

air quality
climate
relief and topography

10

air quality

industrialisation has brought a number of neg effects.
increased exposure to air pollution from industry and transport increases risk of CHD

11

climate

uk studies have shown temp and sunshine are linked to rates of CHD. CHD rates were higher in areas with lower temps and sunshine

12

relief and topography

no clear links between landscape and CHD risk other than that a challenging relief requires more physical effort for walking which could be a threat to underlying issues

13

links with CHD and physcial environment

links are minimal
lifestyle choices with a variety of physical environments are important risk factors

14

poor diet and negative lifestyle factors

expected to account for one third of deaths associated with CHD

15

social factors which increase risk

social deprivation
tobacco use
alcohol use
high blood pressure
high cholesterol
poor nutrition
overweight and obesity
diabetes

16

one of major factors of CHD in developing countries

rapid rate of urbanisation

17

negative impacts of urbanisation that increase risk...

-areas with poor housing conditions and poor access to healthcare
-overcrowded areas can spread disease
-higher levels of air pollution
-urban activity encourages sedentary habits

18

CHD diagnosis

variety of tests most common is an ECG

19

treatment of CHD

1.angioplasty and stent insertion
2. bypass graft
3. medication e.g beta blockers, statins and aspirin
4. disease prevention - eating healthy exercising etc

20

impact

medical advances have reduced the impact greatly in recent years

21

healthcare costs

costs the NHS around 8.7 billion and economy 19 billion

22

non -healthcare costs

losses due to mortality and morbidity cost the uk over 3.9 billion with around 65% due to death and 35% due to illness

23

total costs

estimated to cost uk 9 billion per year
-36% direct healthcare costs
-43% productivity losses
21% informal care of people with CHD

24

prevention

educating the public
making treatments available and affordable
advising patients on healthy living practices

25

policies and legislation

most common legislation involves reducing tobacco smoking which has clear links to reducing CHD