Flashcards in environment and disease Deck (34):
what is morbidity?
refers to ill health, includes any diseased state, disability or condition of poor health
what is mortality?
refers to deaths, it is the condition of being mortal or susceptible to death
summary of epidemiological transition...
infectious diseases are replaced by chronic diseases as the main cause of morbidity and mortality due to improved public health and sanitation
does the place where someone lives affect their life?
environmental variables and the incidence of disease - climate
-drought leads to crop failure reduction in food security and famine
-flooding can lead to water borne diseases
-SAD - type of depression that has a seasonal pattern
-number of people in uk with respiratory issues has fallen due to improved air quality
-high conc of aluminium in water correlates w/ alz
environmental variables and the incidence of disease - topography FLAT LAND `
-LIC's like Asia high densities of people live on flood plains
attracted to by flat land and seasonal flooding that allows them to grow rice
flooding = good but unplanned flooding accounts for 40% of deaths by natural disasters
what does flooding also lead to?
damage to homes
nepal suffers from land slides destroying hospitals, schools roads etc
environmental variables and the incidence of disease - natural hazards
hatti earthquake jan 2010
before - country lacked sewage systems half country lacked access to clean water 200,000 people HIV/AIDS
disease spread cholera - 2010-2014 8500 deaths cholera
uk air pollution is linked to how many deaths?
40,000 early deaths per year
distribution of deaths from air pollution
-indie and china -NEE- high due to wealth and industrialisation
-Australia = low due to strict emission laws
poor indoor air quality
roof leaks - bacterial growth
wood burning stoves
global pattern of deaths from indoor smoke
-central and southern Africa
outdoor air pollution
major environmental health problem with potential to affect everyone in both developed and developing
burning of fossil fuels
produces harmful poisons and gasses and long term exposure can cause respiratory problems
this affects the respiratory and cardiovascular health of the population and is responsible for 37 mil premature deaths worldwide
dirtiest atmosphere out of 1600 cities worldwide
improving air quality
policies and investments that support cleaner transport power generation and efficient housing
what would happen if we reduced air pollution?
countries would reduce the burden of disease from stroke, lung cancer and respiratory diseases
will improving air quality be easier in developed or developing countries?
-priority problem for developed whereas LICs are still battling communicable diseases
water pollution and poor water quality?
have important impacts on health and can lead to many diseases 2million deaths anually due to unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene
- 1 of main causes of water pollution
toilets may be a hole in ground, same water may be used for drinking washing etc
2015 water aid
said 8 million people lived without safe water
water resource development and management
attempts to manage water supplies through dam development has led to health problems due to stagnent water - breeding ground for mosquitos
water related diseases include
management of water diseases
much progress has been made as it is a focus of mdg's
number of children dying from diarrohoeal diseases has fallen since 1990's
practical measures have included:
better tools and procedures to protect drinking water quality
SDG'S are focusing on controlling human exposure to water borne diseases
what are blue zone communities?
areas where people live the longest
which city in UK has lowest life expectancy ?
are urban environments in HIC's more or less likely to lead to health problems than LIC'S
HIC'S less likely but still suffer from health problems
LIC's suffer from air and water pollution issues
liberate significant amounts of particulate air pollution into the outdoor air
sri lanka - development
-has achieved health related MDG goal targets
-public health care accessible to all
-investment in public health and hospitals n
-widespread vaccination and health education programmes