Flashcards in DTM and natural population change Deck (29):
what is the death rate?
average number of live births per year
what is the birth rate?
average number of births per year
what is the infant mortality rate?
the amount of people who die before their first birthday
how many stages of the DTM are there?
what happens in stage 1?
period of high birth rate and high death rate. population growth = small
reasons for high birth rates (stage 1)
limited birth control/family planning
high infant mortality rate encourages birth of more children
children = future source of income
reasons for high death rate (stage 1 )
high incidence of disease
underdeveloped health facilities
what happens in stage 2 >?
periof of high birth rate but death rate falls
reason for falling death rates (stage 2)
improved public health
lower child mortality
improved medical provision
what happens in stage 3?
period of falling birth rate and continued fall in death rate
reasons for falling birth rate (stage 3)
changing socio-economic conditions
greater access to education
preferences for smaller families
lower infant mortality rate
increased personal wealth
what happens in stage 4?
period of low BR and DR
more women in workforce with many having high personal incomes and more leisure interests
what happens in stage 5?
death rate slightly exceeds birth rate causing population decline
What are the limitations of the DTM
it does not include the influences of migration
it assumes all countries will go through the same pattern
no time scale
reasons for BR and DR vary in different countries
assumption - all countries will develop
some countries show little sign of this
assumption - all countries develop at the same speed
Uk took 200 yrs to industrialise but China has in 60
assumption- countries will never reach a point where population declines
italy, russia and japan have
what is there a correlation between?
birth rates and fertility rates as they both measure the reproductive potential of a population
why is total fertility rate a more accurate measurement of future population?
as it is the average number of children that each women will have
where has the highest fertility rates?
sub saharan africa and niger
infant mortality rates- important measure of mortality because
age specific- relates to one particular group
indication of level of healthcare available
indication of wealth of a country
what are the social factors affecting fertility?
healthcare and medical technology
status of women
culture and religious beliefs
what are the political factors affecting fertility?
economic factors affecting fertility
cultural controls - gender
Some cultures have preferences for males, therefore higher fertility rates as families keep trying for boys
cultural controls - religion
roman catholics and islam proscribe use of contraception as population control, therefore low fertility growth
cultural controls - marriage traditions
-women marry young youngest at age 12
-therefore means women have more children
what factors have influenced population change in china and bangaldesh
raising minimum age to marry
improving access to contraception
chinas one child policy to reduce rapid population growth