DTM and natural population change Flashcards Preview

Geography - population and the environment > DTM and natural population change > Flashcards

Flashcards in DTM and natural population change Deck (29):
1

what is the death rate?

average number of live births per year

2

what is the birth rate?

average number of births per year

3

what is the infant mortality rate?

the amount of people who die before their first birthday

4

how many stages of the DTM are there?

5

5

what happens in stage 1?

period of high birth rate and high death rate. population growth = small

6

reasons for high birth rates (stage 1)

limited birth control/family planning
high infant mortality rate encourages birth of more children
children = future source of income

7

reasons for high death rate (stage 1 )

high incidence of disease
poor nutrition
poor hygiene
underdeveloped health facilities

8

what happens in stage 2 >?

periof of high birth rate but death rate falls

9

reason for falling death rates (stage 2)

economic development
improved public health
better nutrition
lower child mortality
improved medical provision

10

what happens in stage 3?

period of falling birth rate and continued fall in death rate

11

reasons for falling birth rate (stage 3)

changing socio-economic conditions
greater access to education
preferences for smaller families
lower infant mortality rate
increased personal wealth

12

what happens in stage 4?

period of low BR and DR
more women in workforce with many having high personal incomes and more leisure interests

13

what happens in stage 5?

death rate slightly exceeds birth rate causing population decline

14

What are the limitations of the DTM

it does not include the influences of migration
it assumes all countries will go through the same pattern
no time scale
reasons for BR and DR vary in different countries

15

assumption - all countries will develop

some countries show little sign of this

16

assumption - all countries develop at the same speed

Uk took 200 yrs to industrialise but China has in 60

17

assumption- countries will never reach a point where population declines

italy, russia and japan have

18

what is there a correlation between?

birth rates and fertility rates as they both measure the reproductive potential of a population

19

why is total fertility rate a more accurate measurement of future population?

as it is the average number of children that each women will have

20

where has the highest fertility rates?

sub saharan africa and niger

21

infant mortality rates- important measure of mortality because

age specific- relates to one particular group
indication of level of healthcare available
indication of wealth of a country

22

what are the social factors affecting fertility?

healthcare and medical technology
education
status of women
culture and religious beliefs
age

23

what are the political factors affecting fertility?

population policies
political stability

24

economic factors affecting fertility

economic conditions
affluence

25

cultural controls - gender

Some cultures have preferences for males, therefore higher fertility rates as families keep trying for boys

26

cultural controls - religion

roman catholics and islam proscribe use of contraception as population control, therefore low fertility growth

27

cultural controls - marriage traditions

-women marry young youngest at age 12
-therefore means women have more children

28

what factors have influenced population change in china and bangaldesh

raising minimum age to marry
improving access to contraception
MDG's
chinas one child policy to reduce rapid population growth

29

what have been the consequences of the changes in bangladesh and china ?

reduction in pop growth
reduction in BR
better education
infant mortality rates reduced
higher life expectancy