Damage to upper motor neurones can result in what 5 symptoms?
Paralysis Paresis Reflex loss Fibrillations Fasciculations
In the ventral horn of the spinal cord, distal musculature controls what?
Fine movements (e.g fingers)
In the ventral horn of the spinal cord, proximal and axial musculature controls what?
What is the function of the lateral corticospinal tract?
Voluntary control of distal musculature (controls fine movements)
What is the function of the anterior corticospinal tract?
Voluntary control of proximal musculature (controls position)
What is the function of the reticulospinal tract?
Regulate flexor muscle reflexes and initiate patterned activity (locomotion)
What is the function of the rubrospinal tract?
Motor control; excitement of flexors
What is the function of the tectospinal tract?
Mainly cervical termination, orientation to visual stimuli
The superior caliculi is associated with what?
The inferior caliculi is associated with what?
What is the function of the vestibulospinal tract?
Lateral controls anti-gravity muscles
Medial regulates head movements
Where does the lateral corticospinal tract cross over?
At pyramidal decussation
Where does the anterior corticospinal tract cross over?
At segmental level of spinal cord
Corticobulbar tract innervates which cranial nerves?
V - Trigeminal
VII - Facial
XI - Accessory
XII - Hypoglossal
How can upper motor neurones damage (corticospinal) be identified?
Positive Babinski Sign
Describe the Babinski sign?
Abnormal fanning of toes and extension of big toe. Plantar flexion occurs as opposed to normal dorsiflexion
Lesions above the red nucleus lead to which condition?
Decorticate posturing (hyper flexion of upper extremities)
Lesions below the red nucleus lead to which condition?
Decerebrate posturing (hyper extension of upper extremities)
Describe the route the Pontine recticulospinal tract takes?
Describe the route the Medullary reticulospinal tract takes?
Both contralateral and ipsilateral