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Flashcards in Cognition and Memory Deck (23):
1

What type of memory is explicit?

Declarative

2

Where is declarative memory located?

Medial temporal lobe
Hippocampus and entorhinal cortex
(Diencephalon)

3

Describe procedural memory?

Implicit memory that includes learned skills and behaviours which are inaccessible to the conciousness

4

Where is procedural memory located?

Skills and habits - Striatum
Skeletal musculature - Cerebellum
Emotional responses - Amygdala

5

Describe short-term memory?

Limited capacity
Needs continuous rehearsal (this lol)
Found in multiple brain areas

6

Describe retrograde amnesia?

Loss of memory from events before the trauma

7

Describe anterograde amnesia?

Loss of memory from events after the trauma

8

Lesions of the medial temporal lobe will affect which type of memory? What are the resulting symptoms? What are the key sites of typical damage?

Declarative (long term more affected)
Anterograde amnesia
Key site = Entorinhal cortex

9

What two types of memory is the hippocampus crucial for?

Spatial memory (hippocampal place cells)
Associative learning

10

Describe Kluver-Bucy syndrome and where is the disorder location?

Fronto-temporal dementia with classical symptom of hyperphagia
Damage to the amygdala

11

Describe Korsakov's syndrome? How is it caused? Where is the disorder location?

Marked anterograde and retrograde amnesia with confabulations
Caused by thyamin deficiency secondary to chronic XS alcohol and malnutrition
Lesion in the mamillary bodies and the dorsomedial thalamus

12

Describe Parkinson's disease and what type of memory does it affect?

Procedural memory affected only
Degeneration of the substantia nigra (decreased dopamine input into the striatum)

13

What causes primary dementias?

Protein deposits that lead to neuronal death

14

Describe Alzheimers disease?

Degeneration of the temporal lobe via neurofibillary plaques and tangles
Seen first in the rhinal cortex

15

Which cerebral artery lesion would affect procedural memory function?

Posterior cerebral artery

16

What type of dementia is Huntingtons?

Subcorticle

17

Name the six features examined during a test of cognition?

Orientation
Attention
Memory
Visual (sensory) recognition
General intelligence
Replication of motor commands

18

Name three types of specialised tests for cognition?

Structural MRI
Functional MRI
PET scan

19

What functions does the frontal lobe control?

Executive functioning
Motor control
Attention

20

What functions does the parietal lobe control?

Multi-model sensory integration
Special orientation

21

What functions does the temporal lobe control?

Hearing
Memory
Perceptual organisation
Emotions

22

What functions does the occipital lobe control?

Visual perception

23

Damage to which region of the brain may lead to prospagnosia?

Lower temporal lobe