Structure and Biochemistry of Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Structure and Biochemistry of Connective Tissue Deck (43)
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1

What embryological tissue is connective tissue derived from?

Mesoderm

2

What properties define connective tissues?

Cells positioned far apart, surrounded by extra-cellular matrix

3

What is the major cell type found in most connective tissues?

Fibroblasts

4

What extra-cellular matrix is produced by fibroblasts?

Fibres containing collagen and elastin
Ground substance

5

What makes up ground substance?

Water and proteoglycans and metabolites

6

Where are osteocytes found?

Bone

7

Where are chodrocytes found?

Cartilage

8

Where are adipocytes found?

Fat

9

Which connective tissue cell type proliferates in response to injury?

Fibroblasts (immature)

10

What are mesenchymal cells?

Undifferentiated stem cells

11

What is the function of adipocytes and what are the two types, and from which cell do they develop?

Adipocytes synthesise and store lipids
Unilocular adipocytes = White cells
Multilocular adipocytes = Brown cells (high in neonates)
Develop from mesenchymal cells

12

Name the two types of soft connective tissue?

Loose (low collagen)
Dense (high collagen)

13

Name the subdivisions of loose connective tissue?

Areolar (gas exchange)
Adipose
Reticular (lymph/liver/spleen)
Synovial

14

Describe synovial fluid?

High in blood plasma, it contains hyaluronan and glycoproteins (proteoglycan aggregates)

15

Name the subdivisions of dense connective tissue?

Irregular - dermis of skin
Regular (high in collagen and vit C) - including tendons/ligaments/fibrous capsule

16

Name and describe the three types of skeletal connective tissue?

Bone - haversian/woven
Cartilidge - hyaline/elastic/fibrocartilage
Dental - Dentine/enamel

17

Describe osteoarthritis?

Acts on hyaline cartilage
Slow degeneration
Wear and tear

18

Describe rheumatoid arthritis?

Acts on synovial membrane/hyaline cartilage
It is an autoimmune disorder
It is aggressive in progression

19

Tendonitis of the lateral epicondyle is commonly referred to as?

Tennis elbow

20

Tendonitis of the medial epicondyle is commonly referred to as?

Golfer's elbow

21

Where is type I collagen found?

Ubiquitous (everywhere) - including bone

22

Where is type II collagen found?

Main component in cartilage formation
Vitreous humour of the eye

23

Where is type VI collagen found?

Basal laminae

24

In hyaline cartilage what do proteoglycans provide?

Flexibility and resilience to compression

25

In hyaline cartilage what do collagen fibres provide?

Rigidity and tensile strength

26

Where and how does hyaline cartilage obtain nutirents?

Comes from the synovial fluid and subcondral bone
Via accelerated diffusion

27

What does accelerated diffuse dependent upon?

Mobilisation of the joint

28

How does osteoarthritis lead to chondrocyte matrix breakdown?

Relieves the set constant pressure that the chonrocytes require to maintain their structure

29

What substances is collagen made up of?

Glycine
Proline/hydroxyproline
Hydroxylysine

30

Pro-collagen is converted via pro-collagen peptides into what?

Tropo-collagen