Structure and Biochemistry of Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

Thought, Sense and Movement > Structure and Biochemistry of Connective Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Structure and Biochemistry of Connective Tissue Deck (43):
1

What embryological tissue is connective tissue derived from?

Mesoderm

2

What properties define connective tissues?

Cells positioned far apart, surrounded by extra-cellular matrix

3

What is the major cell type found in most connective tissues?

Fibroblasts

4

What extra-cellular matrix is produced by fibroblasts?

Fibres containing collagen and elastin
Ground substance

5

What makes up ground substance?

Water and proteoglycans and metabolites

6

Where are osteocytes found?

Bone

7

Where are chodrocytes found?

Cartilage

8

Where are adipocytes found?

Fat

9

Which connective tissue cell type proliferates in response to injury?

Fibroblasts (immature)

10

What are mesenchymal cells?

Undifferentiated stem cells

11

What is the function of adipocytes and what are the two types, and from which cell do they develop?

Adipocytes synthesise and store lipids
Unilocular adipocytes = White cells
Multilocular adipocytes = Brown cells (high in neonates)
Develop from mesenchymal cells

12

Name the two types of soft connective tissue?

Loose (low collagen)
Dense (high collagen)

13

Name the subdivisions of loose connective tissue?

Areolar (gas exchange)
Adipose
Reticular (lymph/liver/spleen)
Synovial

14

Describe synovial fluid?

High in blood plasma, it contains hyaluronan and glycoproteins (proteoglycan aggregates)

15

Name the subdivisions of dense connective tissue?

Irregular - dermis of skin
Regular (high in collagen and vit C) - including tendons/ligaments/fibrous capsule

16

Name and describe the three types of skeletal connective tissue?

Bone - haversian/woven
Cartilidge - hyaline/elastic/fibrocartilage
Dental - Dentine/enamel

17

Describe osteoarthritis?

Acts on hyaline cartilage
Slow degeneration
Wear and tear

18

Describe rheumatoid arthritis?

Acts on synovial membrane/hyaline cartilage
It is an autoimmune disorder
It is aggressive in progression

19

Tendonitis of the lateral epicondyle is commonly referred to as?

Tennis elbow

20

Tendonitis of the medial epicondyle is commonly referred to as?

Golfer's elbow

21

Where is type I collagen found?

Ubiquitous (everywhere) - including bone

22

Where is type II collagen found?

Main component in cartilage formation
Vitreous humour of the eye

23

Where is type VI collagen found?

Basal laminae

24

In hyaline cartilage what do proteoglycans provide?

Flexibility and resilience to compression

25

In hyaline cartilage what do collagen fibres provide?

Rigidity and tensile strength

26

Where and how does hyaline cartilage obtain nutirents?

Comes from the synovial fluid and subcondral bone
Via accelerated diffusion

27

What does accelerated diffuse dependent upon?

Mobilisation of the joint

28

How does osteoarthritis lead to chondrocyte matrix breakdown?

Relieves the set constant pressure that the chonrocytes require to maintain their structure

29

What substances is collagen made up of?

Glycine
Proline/hydroxyproline
Hydroxylysine

30

Pro-collagen is converted via pro-collagen peptides into what?

Tropo-collagen

31

Defects in the pro-collagen peptides can lead to which condition?

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VII

32

What secondary protein structure makes up collagen?

Type II - trans helix (with hydrogen bonds)

33

Vit C deficiency can lead to which condition?

Scurvy

34

Collagen is structurally stabilised via lysine residue reactions and lysyl oxidase, a defect in lysyl oxidase leads to what conditions?

Ehlers-Danlos syndrom type V
SCAD

35

What is the protein to carbohydrate ratio in proteoglycans?

10:90

36

Name the type of proteoglycan primarily found in cartilage?

Aggrecan

37

Name the and describe the short glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains found on aggrecan?

Keratan-sulphate
Galactose-GlucNac
Every other sugar has a negative charge

38

Name the and describe the long glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains found on aggrecan?

Chondroitan-6-sulphate
Glucoronic acid-GlucNac
Every sugar is negatively charged

39

What part of the proteoglycan interacts with hyluronan and via which type of chemical bond?

G1 N-terminal
Ionic bond

40

How do proteoglycan aggregates present in the extracellular matrix?

Multimolecular aggregates with very high negative charge

41

What is the function of proteoglycan aggregates?

Retention of water in the extracellular matrix

42

Describe the term 'swelling pressure'?

Proteoglycans are restrained from swelling by the tight collagen meshwork, creating a pressure

43

Describe the 'dampening effect'?

Bottle-brushes of proteoglycans sliding past each other causing a large frictional drag - the cartilage deforms slowly and gradually under the load