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Flashcards in Stress Deck (20):
1

Define stress?

Pathophysiological changes following exposure to diverse physical/chemical/emotional changes

2

What are the three output stress responses?

Behavioural
Autonomic nervous system
H-P-A axis

3

Psychological stress can be divided into?

Controllable stress (self made)
Uncontrollable stress: external (bereavement) or internal (perfectionism)

4

Which area of brain regulates fear?

Amygdala

5

What is the function of the hippocampus?

Memory function
Formation of moods and emotions

6

Where is Nor-epinepherine synthesised in the brain?

Locus corruleus (reticular formation)
(also in the lateral tegmental area)

7

Which two hormones play a role in physiological adaptations to stress?

CRH
Nor-epi

8

Where is CRH synthesised?

Paraventricular nucleus

9

What is the major regulator of the H-P-A?

CRH

10

What is the most important area of the brain in regards to sympathetic nervous system stress response?

Hypothalamus

11

Between which vertebral levels is all the sympathetic innervation contained?

T1 - L2

12

The hypothalamus has strong connections with which two regions in regards to sympathetic nervous output?

Reticular formation within the brainstem (Locus coruleus synthesises Nor-Epi)
Intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord

13

Name the two types of sympathetic nervous system ganglia?

Paravertebral (sympathetic chain)
Pre-vertebral (i.e. ceoliac ganglion)

14

Where do pre-ganglionic sympathetic fibres synapse onto in the adrenal medulla?

Adrenal chromaffin cells

15

What is the distribution ratio of Epi and nor-Epi from the adrenal medulla?

80:20

16

What is the clinical set point defining tachycardia?

H.R>100 bpm

17

What is the cause beneath sinus tachycardia?

Epi release acting on cardiac cells to increase the work of the heart

18

What is the cause beneath supraventricular tachycardia?

Hyperventilation causing hypercapnia and therefore blood vessels vasoconstrict, as a result the ventricles of the heart must contract with greater force and work harder to maintain blood flow

19

What is the clinical set point defining hypertension?

140(+)//90(+) mmHg

20

What drug may be effective in treating the symptoms underlying PTSD and panic disorders?

Propanolol - non specific Beta blocker