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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (37):
1

What is Diabetes Mellitus?

Deficiency of insulin and resistance to effects of insulin

2

What is Diabetes Insipidus?

Deficiency of anti-diuretic hormone

3

What is insulin?

Peptide hormone, 51 amino acids, produced in ß-cells in pancreas

4

What does insulin regulate?

Glucose uptake and metabolism

5

What cells require insulin to absorb glucose?

Skeletal muscle cells and fat cells

6

What does not require insulin to absorb glucose?

Neurons and a variety of other cells

7

Why do skeletal and fat cells require glucose but neurons and others don't?

Can accumulate large carbohydrate reserves

8

What is the action of Insulin?

Uptake glucose and amino acids by cells, glycogen synthesis

9

What is the control release of insulin?

Mainly direct feedback, ß-cells absorb glucose by GLUT2
Some autonomic control
Released from cholecystokinin

10

What are the acute consequences of insulin deficiency?

Hyperglycaemia, ketosis, acidosis, hyperosmolar state

11

What are the chronic consequences of insulin deficiency?

Cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy

12

What is Diabetes Mellitus Type 1?

Autoimmune destruction of ß-cells, trigged by infection, susceptible on HLA gene

13

When does Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 typically start?

Childhood, though can start in adult

14

What is Diabetes Mellitus type 2?

Insulin resistance, ß-cells response to glucose delayed/absent

15

What is Diabetes Mellitus 2 associated with?

Lifestyle

16

What is Gestational Diabetes?

Genetic, insulin resistance triggered by hormonal changed

17

When is Gestational Diabetes resolved?

With delivery

18

What are the risk factors of Gestational Diabetes?

Maternal age, family history of DM2, African/North American, previous gestational diabetes, previous baby over 4kg, smoking

19

What are the dangers to the mother with Gestational Diabetes?

Risk of DM2, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, obstructed labour

20

What are the dangers to the child with Gestational Diabetes?

Risk of DM2, risk of obesity, mactosomia, neonatal hypoglycaemia, neonatal jaundice, respiratory distress

21

What conditions can lead to Secondary Diabetes Mellitus?

Chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic surgery, haemachromatosis

22

What drug related conditions can lead to Secondary Diabetes?

Endocrine - Cushings
Drug therapy - Corticosteriods

23

What are the symptoms for Diabetes Mellitus Type 1?

Polyuria, polydipsia, hunger, weight loss

24

What is Polyuria?

Increased urine output and polydipsia (increased thirst)

25

What is the biochemical diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus?

Fasting glucose - 7mmol
Oral glucose - 11.1mmol
Random glucose- 11.1mmol

26

What happens in an acute presentation of Diabetes Mellitus? (K)

Ketoacidosis - Breakdown of fat and protein released ketones and acids in to blood

27

What can Acute Ketoacidosis result in?

Come and death

28

What is Acute Hyperosmolar Nonketotic state and what can it lead to?

Sever dehydration, DM2, coma and death

29

What is Acute Hypoglycaemia and what can it lead to?

Insulin overdose, coma and death

30

What is Acute Diabetic foot and what can it lead to?

Can lead to generalised sepsis and death

31

What is Chronic Macrovascular Diabetes Mellitus?

Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease

32

What is Chronic Microvascular Diabetes Melitus?

Retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy

33

What other chronic eye condition can happen to Diabetes Mellitus patients?

Cataract

34

What is Diabetic Retinopathy?

Proliferation of blood vessels in retina, macular oedema

35

What can happen with Hyperglycaemia to the eye?

Visual disturbance

36

What is Diabetic Neuropathy?

Microangiopathy of vasa nervosum, numbness, pain, weakness

37

What are the symptoms associated with Diabetic Neuropathy?

Vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, impotence, incontinence, anorgasmia, hypotension