Flashcards in Heart and the Blood Vessels Deck (33):
What is cardiac failure?
Blood not pumped adequately to organs, Heart cannot provide at rate.
What are the causes of cardiac failure?
Ischemia, heart disease, hypertension, arrhythmias, congenital
What are the signs and symptoms of cardiac failure?
SOB, fatigue, peripheral and pulmonary oedema
What is the classification and treatment of cardiac failure?
Acute/Chronic, Left/Right, treat underlying cause, medications
What is valvular heart disease?
Disease process because of heart valve
What is stenosis?
Failure for the valve to open completely, impending flow
What is regurgitation?
Failure for the valve to close, allowing reverse flow
What is vegetations?
Abnormal tissue growth on valve
What is the cause of valvular disease?
Infection, age, fibrosis, MI, HF, hypertension, congenital, IV drug use
What are the Symptoms on valvular disease?
Stroke, arrhythmias, hypertrophy, angina, fainting, HF
What is infective endocarditis?
The lining of the inner heart is infected/inflamed
What are the signs and symptoms of endocarditis?
Infective symptoms, sepsis, HF, heart murmur
What is pericarditis and myocarditis?
Pericarditis - Outside, Myocarditis - Muscle Inflamed
What are the causes and symptoms of peridcarditis and myocarditis?
Bacterial, viral, parasite, TB, cancer, MI, radiation
Chest pain + HF
What is the treatment for pericarditis and myocarditis?
NSAIDS + surgical excision
What is hypertrophic cardiac?
Heavy, muscular, abnormal diastolic filling, common cause of hypertension
What are signs and symptoms of hypertrophic cardiac?
SOB, pain, palpitations, black out, sudden death, atrial fibrillation
What is an aneurysm?
Localised permanent abnormal dilation of a blood vessel
What are the causes of aneurysm?
Age, atherosclerosis, ischemia, hypertension, inflammation, diabetes, autoimmune, bacteria, endocarditis, fungus, marfans syndrome, syphilis
What is high blood pressure?
Blood vessels contracting at more than 120/80
What is the risk of high blood pressure?
Genetics, diet, lifestyle, weight, smoking
What is secondary high blood pressure?
Renal, endocrine, vascular, neurogenetic
What is diabetic vascular disease?
Damage to vessels, kidneys, nerves and retinas
What are the complications of diabetic vascular disease?
Gangrene, renal failure, blindness - effective control reduces risk
What is venous thrombosis?
DVT - Venous impended
What are the causes of DVT?
Mobility, pregnant, oestrogens, IV, risk of PE
What is varicosities?
Twisted, enlarged veins at the skin surface, caused by incompetent valves, oedema, fibrin around veins, ulceration
What is atheroma?
The build up of fatty acids/ material of artery
What is atherosclerosis?
The progressive narrowing and hardening within an artery
What are the clinical atherosclerosis?
Coronary artery - MI/angina
Aorta - Aneurysm
Cardioid - Narrowing causing strokes
Peripheral vascular disease
What is ischemic heart disease?
Imbalance between supply and demand of the heart for oxygenated blood
What are the cause of ischemic heart disease?
Lack of flow and oxygen, atheroma, emobilsm, spasm, demand for oxygen