Heart and the Blood Vessels Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Heart and the Blood Vessels > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart and the Blood Vessels Deck (33):
1

What is cardiac failure?

Blood not pumped adequately to organs, Heart cannot provide at rate.

2

What are the causes of cardiac failure?

Ischemia, heart disease, hypertension, arrhythmias, congenital

3

What are the signs and symptoms of cardiac failure?

SOB, fatigue, peripheral and pulmonary oedema

4

What is the classification and treatment of cardiac failure?

Acute/Chronic, Left/Right, treat underlying cause, medications

5

What is valvular heart disease?

Disease process because of heart valve

6

What is stenosis?

Failure for the valve to open completely, impending flow

7

What is regurgitation?

Failure for the valve to close, allowing reverse flow

8

What is vegetations?

Abnormal tissue growth on valve

9

What is the cause of valvular disease?

Infection, age, fibrosis, MI, HF, hypertension, congenital, IV drug use

10

What are the Symptoms on valvular disease?

Stroke, arrhythmias, hypertrophy, angina, fainting, HF

11

What is infective endocarditis?

The lining of the inner heart is infected/inflamed

12

What are the signs and symptoms of endocarditis?

Infective symptoms, sepsis, HF, heart murmur

13

What is pericarditis and myocarditis?

Pericarditis - Outside, Myocarditis - Muscle Inflamed

14

What are the causes and symptoms of peridcarditis and myocarditis?

Bacterial, viral, parasite, TB, cancer, MI, radiation
Chest pain + HF

15

What is the treatment for pericarditis and myocarditis?

NSAIDS + surgical excision

16

What is hypertrophic cardiac?

Heavy, muscular, abnormal diastolic filling, common cause of hypertension

17

What are signs and symptoms of hypertrophic cardiac?

SOB, pain, palpitations, black out, sudden death, atrial fibrillation

18

What is an aneurysm?

Localised permanent abnormal dilation of a blood vessel

19

What are the causes of aneurysm?

Age, atherosclerosis, ischemia, hypertension, inflammation, diabetes, autoimmune, bacteria, endocarditis, fungus, marfans syndrome, syphilis

20

What is high blood pressure?

Blood vessels contracting at more than 120/80

21

What is the risk of high blood pressure?

Genetics, diet, lifestyle, weight, smoking

22

What is secondary high blood pressure?

Renal, endocrine, vascular, neurogenetic

23

What is diabetic vascular disease?

Damage to vessels, kidneys, nerves and retinas

24

What are the complications of diabetic vascular disease?

Gangrene, renal failure, blindness - effective control reduces risk

25

What is venous thrombosis?

DVT - Venous impended

26

What are the causes of DVT?

Mobility, pregnant, oestrogens, IV, risk of PE

27

What is varicosities?

Twisted, enlarged veins at the skin surface, caused by incompetent valves, oedema, fibrin around veins, ulceration

28

What is atheroma?

The build up of fatty acids/ material of artery

29

What is atherosclerosis?

The progressive narrowing and hardening within an artery

30

What are the clinical atherosclerosis?

Coronary artery - MI/angina
Aorta - Aneurysm
Cardioid - Narrowing causing strokes
Peripheral vascular disease

31

What is ischemic heart disease?

Imbalance between supply and demand of the heart for oxygenated blood

32

What are the cause of ischemic heart disease?

Lack of flow and oxygen, atheroma, emobilsm, spasm, demand for oxygen

33

What are the risk factors of ischemic heart disease?

Family history, age, male, genetics.
Smoking, hypertension, diabetes, lack of exercise, alcohol