Flashcards in Lower Gastrointestinal Disease Deck (22):
What is the function of the large intestine and rectum?
Mainly absorbs water and electrolytes to form stool
What is Acute Appendicitis?
Sudden onset inflammation of the appendix
What is the pathology of Acute Appendicitis?
Obstruction of appendix lumen by fecalith, calculus, tumour or worms
What is visceral pain?
What is parietal pain?
What are the clinical signs of Acute Appendicitis?
Pain at umbilical region, migrating to lower abdomen. Tender right quadrant, palpation
What is the peritoneum?
Lining of abdominal cavity
What is peritonitis?
Inflammation of the lining
What is the main reasoning for peritonitis?
A variety - commonly infection
What happens to the peritoneum during appendicitis?
As the appendix is inflammed, coming to contact with the abdominal wall causes localised peritonitis
What is the treatment of Acute Appendicitis?
Surgical and/or antibiotics
What is Anti-biotic Associated Colitis/ Pseudomembraneous Colitis?
Toxins produced by C.Diff from antibiotics
What are the signs and symptoms of Anti-biotic Associated Colitis/ Pseudomembraneous Colitis?
Fever and lower abdo tenderness
What is the treatment of Anti-biotic Associated Colitis/ Pseudomembraneous Colitis?
Hydration, stop antibiotics
What is Inflammatory Bowel Disease?
Chronic inflammatory condition affecting GI
What are the two main forms of IBD?
Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis
What is Crohn's disease?
Affects mouth to anus, mainly colon
What are the complications with Crohn's disease?
Anaemia, malabsorbtion, fistuals, extra-intestinal, risk of carcinoma, skip lesions, bowel obstruction
What is Ulcerative colitis?
Colon only, starts in rectum, continuous, musosal, may involve appendix
What are the complications of Ulcerative colitis?
Anaemia, electrolyte loss, extra-intestinal disease, risk of carcinoma, dysplasia
What causes Colorectal carcinoma?
Genetic, chronic inflammation, dietary factors