Lower Gastrointestinal Disease Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Lower Gastrointestinal Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower Gastrointestinal Disease Deck (22):
1

What is the function of the large intestine and rectum?

Mainly absorbs water and electrolytes to form stool

2

What is Acute Appendicitis?

Sudden onset inflammation of the appendix

3

What is the pathology of Acute Appendicitis?

Obstruction of appendix lumen by fecalith, calculus, tumour or worms

4

What is visceral pain?

Referred pain

5

What is parietal pain?

Localised pain

6

What are the clinical signs of Acute Appendicitis?

Pain at umbilical region, migrating to lower abdomen. Tender right quadrant, palpation

7

What is the peritoneum?

Lining of abdominal cavity

8

What is peritonitis?

Inflammation of the lining

9

What is the main reasoning for peritonitis?

A variety - commonly infection

10

What happens to the peritoneum during appendicitis?

As the appendix is inflammed, coming to contact with the abdominal wall causes localised peritonitis

11

What is the treatment of Acute Appendicitis?

Surgical and/or antibiotics

12

What is Anti-biotic Associated Colitis/ Pseudomembraneous Colitis?

Toxins produced by C.Diff from antibiotics

13

What are the signs and symptoms of Anti-biotic Associated Colitis/ Pseudomembraneous Colitis?

Fever and lower abdo tenderness

14

What is the treatment of Anti-biotic Associated Colitis/ Pseudomembraneous Colitis?

Hydration, stop antibiotics

15

What is Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

Chronic inflammatory condition affecting GI

16

What are the two main forms of IBD?

Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis

17

What is Crohn's disease?

Affects mouth to anus, mainly colon

18

What are the complications with Crohn's disease?

Anaemia, malabsorbtion, fistuals, extra-intestinal, risk of carcinoma, skip lesions, bowel obstruction

19

What is Ulcerative colitis?

Colon only, starts in rectum, continuous, musosal, may involve appendix

20

What are the complications of Ulcerative colitis?

Anaemia, electrolyte loss, extra-intestinal disease, risk of carcinoma, dysplasia

21

What causes Colorectal carcinoma?

Genetic, chronic inflammation, dietary factors

22

What are the signs and symptoms of Colorectal carcinoma?

Depends of site, altered bowel, blood PR, anaemia, weight loss