The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Endocrine System Deck (39):
1

What is the endocrine system?

Multiple organs, highly integrated, secrete hormones

2

What are the endocrine diseases?

Underproduction, overproduction, mass lesions

3

What is the hypothalamus?

Located in the brain, links CNS to endocrine

4

What hormones does the posterior pituitary secrete?

Anti-diuretic hormone and Oxytocin

5

Where is every other hormone secreted?

Anterior pituitary

6

What does Oxytocin do?

Uterus contraction

7

What does ADH do?

Absorption of water from urine

8

What does Hyperpituitarism-related pituitary disease relate to?

Adenomas in anterior lobe, other causes cancer, hyperplasia

9

What does Hypopituitarism-related pituitary disease relate to?

Injury, surgey, radiation, inflammation

10

What are the two types of Pituitary Adenoma?

Functional - prolcactinoma
Non-functional

11

What syndrome does ACTH relate to?

Cushing's syndrome

12

What syndrome does Growth Hormone relate to?

Giantism, Acromegaly

13

What syndrome does Prolactin relate to?

Galactorrhea/Amenorrhea, sexual dysfunction, infertility

14

What syndrome does TSH relate to?

Hyperthyroidism

15

What syndrome does FSH/LH relate to?

Hypogonadism, mass effects/hypopituirarism

16

What does Hypopituitarism occur with a loss of?

75% or more of the anterior pituitary parenchyma

17

What are the causes of Hypopituitarism?

Ischemic necrosis of the pituitary: Sheehans syndrome
Non-functioning adenomas
Surgery/Irradiation
Inflammatory lesion

18

What are the causes hyperthyroidism?

Graves disease, thyroxine, infective (De Quervain's thyroiditis)
Toxic (multinodular goite, adenoma)

19

What are the symptoms Hyperthyroidism?

Hot, bulging eyes, facial flushing, tachycardia, hypertension, breast enlargement, weight loss, muscle wasting, tremors, finger clubbing, diarrhoea, menstrual changes

20

What does Graves disease involve?

Proptosis - eye bulging

21

Why does Graves disease happen?

Unregulated over production of thyroid hormone

22

How do you manage Hyperthyroidism?

Tests, treat the cause, Carbimazole/Propylthiouracil, radioiodine, thyroidectomy

23

What is Goitre?

Swelling of thyroid gland

24

What is Hashimoto's thyroiditis?

Autoimmune destruction of the thyroid gland
Women > men
45 - 60 years old

25

What is the management of Hypothyroidism?

Thyroxine

26

What is the most common type of Thyroid cancer and is it common?

Papillary carcinoma and uncommon

27

What Papillary thyroid cancer functional or non-functional?

Non-functional

28

What are the Parathyroid gland?

2 pairs of Parathyroid gland

29

What are the causes of Hypoparathyrodism?

Removal of surgery, congenital, hereditary

30

What are the symptoms of Hypoparathyroidism?

Irritability, tetany, seizures

31

What are symptoms of Hyperparathyroidism?

Constipation, depression, seizures, muscle wasting, polyuria, bone fractures, kidney stones

32

What is Primary Hyperaldosteronism?

Conn's Disease

33

What is Secondary Hyperaldosteronsim?

High renin

34

What are the symptoms of Conn's Disease?

Oedema, hypertension, high sodium, low potassium

35

Why is Cotisol important?

Essential to life, regulates blood sugar, inhibits inflammation, stress response

36

What are the two reasons for Cushing's Syndrome?

ACTH releasing tumour, steroids

37

What are the three causes for Addisons disease?

Autoimmune, infection, neoplasms

38

What are the symptoms of Addisons disease?

GI symptoms, weight loss, hyperpigmentation, low sodium, high potassium

39

What are the symptoms of Phaeochromocytoma?

Hypertension, sweating, palpitations, nervousness, increased metabolic ration, rapid heart rate