Flashcards in Respiratory Non-Neoplastic Deck (40):
What is an infection of the upper airways?
Acute inflammatory process, affecting mucous membranes of the respiratory tract
What are some infections of the upper airways?
Rhinitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis
What are the symptoms of upper airway infections?
Malaise, headache, sore throat, discharge
What is an infection of the lower airways (Pneumonia)?
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma
What are the causes of lower airway infections (Pneumonia)?
Infectious agents inhaled causes chest wall trauma
What are the categories of different pneumonia ?
Community, hospital, aspiration
What are the clinical features of Pneumonia?
Fever, rigours, SOB, chest pain, purulent sputum, cough
What is the morphology of Pneumonia?
Lobar (one lobe), bronchopneumonia( both), interstitial
What is community acquired Pneumonia?
Common - especially in elderly
What is the bacteria involved in community Pneumonia?
Strep. pneumoniae, staph aureus
Is community acquired Pneumonia lobar or bronchopneumonia?
Can be both
What is hospital acquired Pneumonia?
Any Pneumonia at least 48-72 hours after admission
What is the bacteria involved in hospital Pneumonia?
Gram neg bacilli and staph aureus
Why is hospital acquired Pneumonia serious?
As is can be fatal - most common cause of death in ICU
What are the symptoms of Pneumonia?
Fever, increased WBC, cough with sputum, chest x-ray
What is aspiration Pneumonia?
Inhalation of foreign material
Who is at risk of developing aspiration Pneumonia?
Elderly, stroke, dementia, anaesthetic
What lobes does aspiration Pneumonia effect?
Right middle and right lower
What is an obstructive disease?
Partial or complete obstruction
What is an restrictive disease
Decreased lung capacity
What are some obstructive diseases?
Asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis
What is COPD emphysema?
Irreversible enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, related strongly to smoking
What is the pathogenesis of COPD emphysema?
Chronic inflammation throughout airways, imbalance of oxidants and antioxidants
What are the clinical symptoms of COPD emphysema?
Dyspnoea, cough, weezing, weight loss
What is COPD chronic bronchitis?
Persistent cough with sputum for over 2 years, 3 months per year
What could be the cause of COPD bronchitis?
Long standing irritation - smoking
Mucus in small airways
What is the morphology of COPD chronic bronchitis?
Mucus membrane swelling, mucus, and mucus plugging
What is asthma?
Chronic inflammatory disorder of airways
What are the signs and symptoms of asthma?
Wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, cough
What is the morphology of Asthma?
Lung over inflation, thick mucus plugs, airway remodelling
What is bronchiectasis?
Permanent destruction and dilation of the airways
What is the morphology of bronchiectasis?
Dilated, inflamed airways
What is a pulmonary embolism?
Blockage of a main or branch pulmonary artery by an embolus
What are the usual source of emboli?
Deep venous thrombi (95%)
What are the clinical signs of PE?
Chest pain, SOB, hypoxia, sudden death
What is pulmonary oedema?
Accumulation of fluid in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lung
What is the morphology of pulmonary oedema?
Fluid in basal regions, engorged alveolar capillaries, heavy wet lungs
What are the clinical signs of pulmonary oedema?
SOB, pink frothy sputum, CXR findings
What are the Type1 - Hypoxia with normal or low PCO2?
Pneumonia, PE, asthma, pulmonary oedema, pulmonary fibrosis