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Pathology > Respiratory Non-Neoplastic > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Non-Neoplastic Deck (40):
1

What is an infection of the upper airways?

Acute inflammatory process, affecting mucous membranes of the respiratory tract

2

What are some infections of the upper airways?

Rhinitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis

3

What are the symptoms of upper airway infections?

Malaise, headache, sore throat, discharge

4

What is an infection of the lower airways (Pneumonia)?

Inflammation of the lung parenchyma

5

What are the causes of lower airway infections (Pneumonia)?

Infectious agents inhaled causes chest wall trauma

6

What are the categories of different pneumonia ?

Community, hospital, aspiration

7

What are the clinical features of Pneumonia?

Fever, rigours, SOB, chest pain, purulent sputum, cough

8

What is the morphology of Pneumonia?

Lobar (one lobe), bronchopneumonia( both), interstitial

9

What is community acquired Pneumonia?

Common - especially in elderly

10

What is the bacteria involved in community Pneumonia?

Strep. pneumoniae, staph aureus

11

Is community acquired Pneumonia lobar or bronchopneumonia?

Can be both

12

What is hospital acquired Pneumonia?

Any Pneumonia at least 48-72 hours after admission

13

What is the bacteria involved in hospital Pneumonia?

Gram neg bacilli and staph aureus

14

Why is hospital acquired Pneumonia serious?

As is can be fatal - most common cause of death in ICU

15

What are the symptoms of Pneumonia?

Fever, increased WBC, cough with sputum, chest x-ray

16

What is aspiration Pneumonia?

Inhalation of foreign material

17

Who is at risk of developing aspiration Pneumonia?

Elderly, stroke, dementia, anaesthetic

18

What lobes does aspiration Pneumonia effect?

Right middle and right lower

19

What is an obstructive disease?

Partial or complete obstruction

20

What is an restrictive disease

Decreased lung capacity

21

What are some obstructive diseases?

Asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis

22

What is COPD emphysema?

Irreversible enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, related strongly to smoking

23

What is the pathogenesis of COPD emphysema?

Chronic inflammation throughout airways, imbalance of oxidants and antioxidants

24

What are the clinical symptoms of COPD emphysema?

Dyspnoea, cough, weezing, weight loss

25

What is COPD chronic bronchitis?

Persistent cough with sputum for over 2 years, 3 months per year

26

What could be the cause of COPD bronchitis?

Long standing irritation - smoking
Hypertropy
Mucus in small airways

27

What is the morphology of COPD chronic bronchitis?

Mucus membrane swelling, mucus, and mucus plugging

28

What is asthma?

Chronic inflammatory disorder of airways

29

What are the signs and symptoms of asthma?

Wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, cough

30

What is the morphology of Asthma?

Lung over inflation, thick mucus plugs, airway remodelling

31

What is bronchiectasis?

Permanent destruction and dilation of the airways

32

What is the morphology of bronchiectasis?

Dilated, inflamed airways

33

What is a pulmonary embolism?

Blockage of a main or branch pulmonary artery by an embolus

34

What are the usual source of emboli?

Deep venous thrombi (95%)

35

What are the clinical signs of PE?

Chest pain, SOB, hypoxia, sudden death

36

What is pulmonary oedema?

Accumulation of fluid in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lung

37

What is the morphology of pulmonary oedema?

Fluid in basal regions, engorged alveolar capillaries, heavy wet lungs

38

What are the clinical signs of pulmonary oedema?

SOB, pink frothy sputum, CXR findings

39

What are the Type1 - Hypoxia with normal or low PCO2?

Pneumonia, PE, asthma, pulmonary oedema, pulmonary fibrosis

40

What are the Type11-Hypoxia with high PCO2?

Asthma, COPD, reduced resp drive, neuromuscular disease, thoracic wall disease