Upper Gastrointestinal Disease Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Upper Gastrointestinal Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper Gastrointestinal Disease Deck (37):
1

What organs make up the upper GI tract?

Oesophagus, stomach, intestines

2

What is Chronic Gastritis?

Ongoing inflammation of the stomach mucosa

3

What are the symptoms compared to acute gastritis?

Less sever but more persistent

4

What environment can Chronic Gastritis provide?

Dysplasia and carcinoma to arise

5

What are the symptoms of Chronic Gastritis?

Upper abdo pain, indigestion or bloating, N/V, belching, loss of appetite or weight

6

Can Chronic Gastritis be asymptomatic?

Yes

7

What are the causes for Chronic Gastritis?

A - Autoimmune
B - Bacteria (H.Pylori)
C- Chemical
Psychological stress

8

What is H.Pylori?

Gram neg bacteria found in stomach, antrum

9

Where is H.Pylori acquired from?

Faecal-oral route

10

What conditions is H.Pylori associated with?

Gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers and cancer

11

What is Peptic Ulcer Disease and where does it occur?

Occurs in D1 and antrum, ulcer in stomach

12

What is the reasoning for Peptic Ulcers?

H.Pylori and NSAIDs

13

What are the symptoms of Peptic Ulcers?

Pain, worse at night and after meals

14

What are the complications of Peptic Ulcers?

Bleeding resulting in anaemia, massive haematemesis, peritonitis, cancer

15

What is the normal lining of the oesophagus?

Stratified squamous epithelium

16

What happens to the lining of the oesophagus in Barrett's Oesophagus?

SSE replaced by columnar epithelium with goblet cells

17

What is Barrett's Oesophagus thought to be adapted from?

Chronic acid exposure from reflux

18

What process is involved with Barrett's Oesophagus?

Process of dysplasia

19

What is the strong malignant association with Barrett's Oesophagus?

Oesophageal adenocarcinoma

20

What type of cancer is associated with the Oesophagus?

Squamous carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma (Barretts)

21

What type of cancer is associated with the Stomach?

Adenocarcinoma, GI stromal tumours

22

What type of cancer is associated with the Small Bowel?

Lymphoma, GI stromal tumours, Neuroendocrine

23

What are the risk factors with Oesophageal Squamous Carcinoma?

Alcohol, tobacco, injury, achalasia

24

What are the symptoms of Oesophageal Squamous Carcinoma?

Dysphagia, weight loss, haemorrhage, sepsis

25

What are the symptoms for Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma?

Dysphagia, weight loss, haematemesis, chest pain, vomitting

26

How can Oesophageal carcinoma spread?

Direct - surrounding
Lymphatic - e.g cervical
Haematogenous - e.g liver and lung

27

What is the cause for 90% of gastric malignancies?

Adenocarcinoma

28

What are the precursor lesions with Stomach Adenocarcinoma?

Anaemia, mets, polyps, helicobacter associated gastritis

29

What are the symptoms of Stomach Adenocarcinoma ?

Weight loss, anorexia, anaemia, heamorrage, fungating growth

30

Where can Stomach Adenocarcinoma directly infiltrate to?

Duodenum, pancreas, colon, liver, spleen

31

Where can Stomach Adenocarcinoma lymphatically spread?

Local and regional areas, virchows node

32

What cancer is relatively rare compared to other GI malignancy?

Small bowel neoplasia

33

What are the risk factors for Small Bowel Neoplasia?

Crohn's, Coeliac, Radition, Hereditary

34

What is Coeliac disease?

Extensive mucosal disease related to sensitivity to gluten

35

How can Coeliac be diagnosed?

Blood test (TTG) and biopsy

36

What are the symptoms for Coelic disease?

Pain, constipation/diarrhoea, fail to thrive, anaemia, fatigue

37

What can Coelic disease lead to an increased risk of?

Adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the small bowel