Flashcards in Upper Gastrointestinal Disease Deck (37):
What organs make up the upper GI tract?
Oesophagus, stomach, intestines
What is Chronic Gastritis?
Ongoing inflammation of the stomach mucosa
What are the symptoms compared to acute gastritis?
Less sever but more persistent
What environment can Chronic Gastritis provide?
Dysplasia and carcinoma to arise
What are the symptoms of Chronic Gastritis?
Upper abdo pain, indigestion or bloating, N/V, belching, loss of appetite or weight
Can Chronic Gastritis be asymptomatic?
What are the causes for Chronic Gastritis?
A - Autoimmune
B - Bacteria (H.Pylori)
What is H.Pylori?
Gram neg bacteria found in stomach, antrum
Where is H.Pylori acquired from?
What conditions is H.Pylori associated with?
Gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers and cancer
What is Peptic Ulcer Disease and where does it occur?
Occurs in D1 and antrum, ulcer in stomach
What is the reasoning for Peptic Ulcers?
H.Pylori and NSAIDs
What are the symptoms of Peptic Ulcers?
Pain, worse at night and after meals
What are the complications of Peptic Ulcers?
Bleeding resulting in anaemia, massive haematemesis, peritonitis, cancer
What is the normal lining of the oesophagus?
Stratified squamous epithelium
What happens to the lining of the oesophagus in Barrett's Oesophagus?
SSE replaced by columnar epithelium with goblet cells
What is Barrett's Oesophagus thought to be adapted from?
Chronic acid exposure from reflux
What process is involved with Barrett's Oesophagus?
Process of dysplasia
What is the strong malignant association with Barrett's Oesophagus?
What type of cancer is associated with the Oesophagus?
Squamous carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma (Barretts)
What type of cancer is associated with the Stomach?
Adenocarcinoma, GI stromal tumours
What type of cancer is associated with the Small Bowel?
Lymphoma, GI stromal tumours, Neuroendocrine
What are the risk factors with Oesophageal Squamous Carcinoma?
Alcohol, tobacco, injury, achalasia
What are the symptoms of Oesophageal Squamous Carcinoma?
Dysphagia, weight loss, haemorrhage, sepsis
What are the symptoms for Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma?
Dysphagia, weight loss, haematemesis, chest pain, vomitting
How can Oesophageal carcinoma spread?
Direct - surrounding
Lymphatic - e.g cervical
Haematogenous - e.g liver and lung
What is the cause for 90% of gastric malignancies?
What are the precursor lesions with Stomach Adenocarcinoma?
Anaemia, mets, polyps, helicobacter associated gastritis
What are the symptoms of Stomach Adenocarcinoma ?
Weight loss, anorexia, anaemia, heamorrage, fungating growth
Where can Stomach Adenocarcinoma directly infiltrate to?
Duodenum, pancreas, colon, liver, spleen
Where can Stomach Adenocarcinoma lymphatically spread?
Local and regional areas, virchows node
What cancer is relatively rare compared to other GI malignancy?
Small bowel neoplasia
What are the risk factors for Small Bowel Neoplasia?
Crohn's, Coeliac, Radition, Hereditary
What is Coeliac disease?
Extensive mucosal disease related to sensitivity to gluten
How can Coeliac be diagnosed?
Blood test (TTG) and biopsy
What are the symptoms for Coelic disease?
Pain, constipation/diarrhoea, fail to thrive, anaemia, fatigue