Flashcards in Respiratory neoplastic Deck (25):
What are the vast majority of lung tumours?
Carcinomas (arising from the lining of epithelium)
What are risk factors associated with lung tumours?
Smoking, industrial hazards, family history, immunodeficiency
What are the clinical signs of lung tumours?
Cough, weight loss, chest pain, dysponea
If the clinical feature is pneumonia, abscess, lobar collapse what is the pathological basis?
Obstruction of airway
If the clinical feature is pleural effusion what is the pathological basis?
Spread to pleura
If the clinical feature is hoarseness what is the pathological basis?
Laryngeal nerve invasion
If the clinical feature is dysphagia what is the pathological basis?
What is the staging and treatment for lung tumours?
TNM staging, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy
What does small cell carcinoma have a strong relationship to?
Smoking - 1% in non smokers
Where does small cell carcinoma occur?
Bronchi and periphery, therefore mostly incurable by surgery
What is the histopathology of small cell carcinoma?
Small, tightly packed, darkly stained ovoid (resemble oats)
What are the cells appearance in small cell carcinoma?
Little cytoplasm, fine granular, absent nucleoli, pure or combined
What gender does squamous cell carcinoma mostly affect?
Where does squamous cell carcinoma arise from?
Hilum, usually in area of squamous metaplasia (due to cigarette smoke) central bronchi
What is the histopathology of squamous cell carcinoma?
Resembles stratified squamous epithelium, keratin and inter-cellular bridges
What sex is adenocarinoma associated with?
Females and non smokers (75% found in smokers)
What rate do adenocarinomas grow at and what is the problem?
Grow slowly than SCC but metastasize early and widely
What is adenocarcinoma sometimes associated with?
Scarring - healed TB
What is the histopathology of adenocarcinoma?
Glandular elements - 80% contain mucin
What is large cell carcinoma?
What is the most common site of metastatic neoplasms?
Lung, arriving my blood lymph or direct
What are the common primary sites?
Bowel, prostate, breast, kidney
What is the primary malignant pleural tumour?
What is the increased risk of getting malignant mesothelioma?
Exposure to asbestos