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Flashcards in dialysis2 Deck (23):
1

what type of access is used in hemodialysis

1. arrterial venous graft
2. arterial venous fistula
3. catheter

2

blood that leaves the patient in hemodialysis undergoes what

1. pressure
2. anticoagulant
3. dialyzer (filter)

3

what is the urine looking leftovers from hemodialysis?

ultrafiltrate and dialysate

4

how often is hemodialysis for CKD? how long are each

3x's a week
4 hours

5

what is the blood flow rate of hemodialysis

200-500 mL/min

6

what is the dialysate flow rate?

500-800 ml/min

7

a dialysis prescription contains what

1. flow rates
2. type of dialyzer
3. type of solution
4. time of dialysis
5. anticoagulant regimen
6. pt's dry weight

8

what is the most common type of vascular access for dialysis

arteriovenous fistula

9

where are temproary access ports inserted

catheter into jugular, femoral or subclavian vein
(usually only when have complications w fistula)

10

what is one of the number one complications with pt's with CKD on dialysis

vascular access complications

11

what are the most common type of vascular access complications

1. stenosis
2. thrombosis
3. infection

12

how is thrombosis prevented in dialysis access?

1. cathaters are locked with heparin

13

patients with an elevated bleeding risk (on warfarin) should not have what? what should be done instead

avoid systemic anticoagulation
flush with saline

14

what is regional citrate anticoagulation

anticoagulation by binding ionized calcium so clotting cascade is inhibited

15

what are nonpharm therapies for cathater related thrombosis

forced saline flush

16

what are pharm therapies for management of catheter related thrombosis

alteplase (clot breaker)

17

what is the leading cause of mortality in dialysis patients (other than CV)

vascular access infection

18

what is the difference in a local infection vs. extensive infection

local infection - catheter infection
extensive infection - kidney is infected

19

what can happen from vascular access infection

1. endocarditis (heart valve infection)
2. osteomyelitis (bone infection)
3. septic arthritis (joint infection)
4. septic pulmonary emboli
5. septic syndrome

20

what should be done if a dialysis pt. has a fever during HD

immediately take blood culture

21

what should be done for AV fistula infection

long term antibiotic treatment

22

what is an infection localized to catheter site?
how should it be treated

tunneled cuffed cathater
use bactrim if no drainagewho

23

who has a high risk for intradialytic hypotension

1. Diabetes
2. autonomic insufficiency
3. heart disease
4. elderly