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Flashcards in HTN1 Deck (27):
1

what are the two classification groups of HTN? what percent of HTN is each

essential HTN =90%
secondary HTN = 10%

2

what is the basic formula of BP?

BP= CO x SVR

CO - cardiac output
SVR = systemic vascular resistance

3

what is cardiac output

volume pumped by a ventricle per minute
bpm x stroke volume

4

what is the maximum bp during cardiac contraction

systolic blood pressure

5

what is the major determinant of systemic vascular resistance

diastolic blood pressure

6

what is the minimal bp during heart chamber filling?

diastolic blood pressure

7

what occurs with aging where aorta becomes stiff and cant open up as much when heart contracts

isolated systolic hypertension

8

how is pulse pressure calculated

systolic - diastolic - pulse pressure

9

what is the average normal pulse pressure

120-80= 40

10

what two systems are targeted in treating the pathophysiology of HTN

Renin- Angiotensin Aldosterone System
Neuronal Mechanisms (alpha and beta receptors)

11

what stimulates the kidneys to release renin?

renal hypoperfusion

12

angiotensin II has what two major effects

1. direct vasoconstriction and increase in volume
2. release of aldosterone

13

what are the two presynaptic neuronal mechanism and there effect?

1. presynaptic alpha stimulation decreases NE release
2. presynaptic beta stimulation increases NE release

14

what are the effects of postsynaptic alpha receptor stimulation?

vasoconstriction

15

what are the effects of each postsynaptic beta receptor being stimulated?

B1 (heart = increase heart rate and contractility
B2 (lungs) = vasodialtion

16

beta blockers in what patients may be potentially harmful?

asthma patients

17

what are some risks of HTN?

1. atherosclerosis of veins
2. left verntricular hypertrophy (working harder)

18

what is caused by left ventricular hypertrophy?

1. increased afterload
2. arterial damage
3. increase risk of heart failure

19

for every 20 mmHg increase in systolic BP how much is the risk of CV disease increased?

doubles risk of CV disease

20

for every 10 mmHg increase in diastolic BP how much is the risk of CV disease increased?

doubles risk of CV disease

21

what are 3 major benefits of antihypertensive therapy?

1. decrease risk of stroke by 30-45%
2. decrease MI by 20-25%
3. decrease HF by 50%

22

if a patient has HTN and once other CV risk factor what amount of decrease in BP over 10 years prevents 1 death out of 11 treated?

12mmHg decrese

23

why is HTN considered a silent killer?

it is asymptomatic;
don't see or feel any changes

24

what are some factors needed for proper BP measure

1. no exercise, smoking or caffeine for 30 min. prior
2. 5 minutes of rest before taking bp
3. feet flat on floor and arms at proper level
4. cuff properly sized
5. readings at least 5 minutes apart and take avg.

25

what are the new guidelines for managing HTN

Joint National Commision 8 (JNC8)

26

how many recommendations are there for management of HTN in JNC8

9 primary recommendations

27

what are 3 significant changes seen in JNC8

systematic review limited to RCT evidence
similar treatment goals for all HTN population
addresses limited number of high priority questions