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Anatomy II > Digestive/Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive/Endocrine Deck (68)
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1

Liver Role in Digestion

Secretion of bile

2

Hepatic Triad

Hepatic Portal Vein
Bile Duct
Hepatic Artery

3

Hepatic Portal Vein

70% of blood that goes through the liver

4

Bile Duct

Collection of bile from all cells

5

Hepatic Artery

30% of blood that goes through the liver

6

Gallbladder

Stores bile produced in the liver and concentrates it

7

Pathway of Bile Secretion

1. Bile capillaries
2. Hepatic ducts create common hepatic duct
3. Cystic duct (gallbladder) and common hepatic duct make common bile duct
4. Common bile duct and pancreatic duct empty into duodenum

8

Components of Bile

1. Water and cholesterol
2. Bile salts (Na and K)
3. Bile pigments (bilirubin) from hemoglobin molecule

9

Acini

Dark clusters in the pancreas
Exocrine
99% of pancreas
Produce pancreatic juice

10

Islets of Langerhans

1% of gland
Pale staining cells
Produce hormones

11

Pancreatic Juice Components

Water, enzymes, and sodium bicarbonate

12

Digestive Enzymes of Pancreas

Pancreatic amylase
Pancreatic lipase
Ribonuclease
Deoxyribonuclease
Zymogens

13

Zymogens of Pancreas

Trypsinogen
Chymotrypsinogen
Procarboxypeptidase

14

Activation of Zymogens

Trypsinogen converted to trypsin by intestinal epithelium
Trypsin converts other two zymogens as well as digests dietary protein

15

Regulation of Pancreatic Secretions

Acetylcholine
Secretin
Cholecystokinin

16

Acetylcholine in Pancreas

Vagal origin
Stimulates acini to secrete enzymes during cephalic phase

17

Secretin in Pancreas

Acidity in intestine causes increased sodium bicarbonate release

18

Cholecystokinin in Pancreas

Fats and proteins cause increased digestive enzyme release, contraction of gallbladder, and relaxation of Sphincter of Oddi

19

Equations for Regulation of Pancreatic Secretions

HCl + NaHCO3 --> NaCl + H2CO3 --> NaCl + H2O + CO2

H2O goes into stomach, CO2 goes into the blood
Decreases acidity, lowers pH

20

Anatomy of Small Intestine

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

21

Where does all absorption occur?

Small intestine

22

Histology of Small Intestine

1. Circular Folds (increase surface area, slow progress of chyme)
2. Gastric Pits (secrete chemicals)
3. Villi (contains arteriole, blood capillaries, venule, and lymphatic capillary)
4. Microvilli (contain enzymes that complete chemical digestion; contain brush border enzymes)

23

Functions of Microvilli

Absorption and digestion
Significant cell division within intestinal glands
Rupture and release digestive enzymes and proteins

24

Cells of Intestinal Glands

1. Microvilli
2. Goblet Cell
3. Enteroendocrine Cell
4. Paneth Cell

25

Enteroendocrine Cell

Secretes secretin, CCK, or gastric inhibitory peptide

26

Paneth Cell

Secretes lysozyme

27

Segmentation

Local mixing of chyme with intestinal juices

28

Digestion of Carbohydrates

1. Mouth: salivary amylase
2. Esophagus and Stomach: nothing
3. Duodenum: pancreatic amylase
4. Brush border enzymes (maltase, sucrase, and lactase) act on disaccharides to produce monosaccharides

29

Digestion of Proteins

1. Stomach: HCl denatures proteins and pepsin turns into peptides
2. Pancreas: trypsin and chymotrypsin take over
3. Carboxypeptidase: removes AA from carboxyl group
4. Aminopeptidase: removes AA from nitrogenous group
5. Dipeptidase: splits dipeptides in the middle and releases the last two free AA

30

Protein Absorption

Brush border enzymes produce amino acids that are absorbed into the intestinal epithelial cells and into the bloodstream