Lymphatic/Immune 2 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy II > Lymphatic/Immune 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lymphatic/Immune 2 Deck (68)
Loading flashcards...
1

Mobilization of Defenses

Leukocytes deployed

2

Margination

Leukocytes adhere to blood vessel walls

3

Diapedesis

Leukocytes squeeze between endothelial cells into tissue space

4

Containment and Destruction of Pathogens

Fibrinogen in tissue clots to trap microbes
Heparin prevents clotting at side of injury
Neutrophils respond and kill microbes via phagocytosis

5

Tissue Cleanup

1. Monocytes arrive in 8-12 hours and become macrophages
2. Edema slows venous flow and increases lymphatic flow to remove bacteria and debris
3. Pus is formed

6

Tissue Repair

Blood platelets and endothelial cells secrete cytokine PDGF that stimulates fibroblasts to multiply and synthesize collagen

7

Pus

Dead phagocytes, damaged tissue cells, and fluid

8

Abscess

Accumulation of pus in a confined space not open to the outside

9

Ulcer

Open sore

10

Immunity

Body's ability to defend itself against specific foreign material or organisms

11

Immune Specificity

Recognize self and nonself

12

Immune Memory

2nd encounter produces even more rigorous response

13

T Cells

Mature in the thymus
NK cells attack antigens
Effective against fungi, viruses, parasites, cancer, and tissue transplants

14

B Cells

Mature in the bone marrow
Antibody-mediated response
Effective against bacteria

15

Antigens

Molecules or bits of foreign materials

16

Antigen Immunogenicity

Ability to provoke immune responses

17

Antigen Reactivity

Ability to react to cells or antibodies

18

Chemical Nature of Antigens

Large, complex molecules, usually proteins

19

Epitopes

Small part of antigen that triggers immune response

20

Hapten

Smaller substance that cannot trigger an immune response unless attached to a body protein
Lipid of poison ivy

21

MHC-I Molecules

Built into cell membrane of all cells except for red blood cells

22

MHC-II Molecules

Markers seen only on membrane of antigen presenting cells
(Macrophages, B cells, thymus cells)

23

If cell is infected with virus...

MHC-I contains bits of virus marking cell so T Cells recognize

24

If antigen presenting cells (macrophages or B cells) ingest foreign proteins...

They will display as part of MHC-II

25

Histocompatibility Testing

Similarity of MHC antigens on body cells of different individuals
Tissue typing must be done before any organ transplant
Can help identify biological parents

26

Pathways of Antigen Processing

B and T cells must recognize a foreign antigen before beginning their immune response
B cells can bind to antigen in extracellular fluid
T cells can only recognize fragments of antigens that have been processed and presented to them as part of a MHC molecule

27

Cytokines

Small protein hormones involved in immune responses
Secreted by lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells

28

Lymphocytes

80% T Cells (cell mediated): involves activation of phagocytes, T Cells
15% B Cells (antibody mediated): antibody production
5% NK cells (nonspecific immunity)

29

T Lymphocytes

Immunocompetent cell: antigen receptors in place

30

Negative Selection of T Cells in Thymus

1. Must bind to reticular epithelium cell
2. Must not react to self antigens
Failing either will result in clonal deletion or anergy
1/100 emerge immunocompetent