Quiz 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (51):
1

Flow is governed by...

Pressure and resistance

2

Pressure

Moves fluid

3

Resistance

Opposes movement

4

By pulling back a syringe...

We increase the volume and decrease the pressure
The pressure outside the syringe is greater than the inside, so air moves in

5

By pushing on a syringe...

We decrease the volume and increase the pressure
The pressure outside the syringe is less than the inside, so air moves out

6

Heart Sounds

S1 and S2

7

S1

Closure of the AV valves
"Lub"

8

S2

Closure of the semilunar valves
"Dub"

9

Valvular Regurgitation

A condition in which blood leaks in the wrong direction because one or more heart valves closes improperly
Mitral valve prolapse is a common cause

10

Events of Ventricular Systole

Ventricular contraction
Atrial relaxation (filling)

11

Events of Ventricular Diastole

Ventricular relaxation (filling)
Atrial diastole continues throughout most of diastole
Atrial systole (ejection into ventricles) occurs near the end of diastole

12

End Diastolic Volume

Volume in each ventricle at the end of diastole (120-130mL)

13

End Systolic Volume

Volume remaining after systole (50-60mL)

14

Stroke Volume

Volume ejected per beat (EDV-ESV)

15

Ejection Fraction

Blood at beginning of systole ejected during systole
(EF=SV/EDV)
Lower EF indicated you are not pumping as much blood per beat, so therefore not as much blood to tissues

16

Ventricular Diastole (Passive Filling)

30mL

17

Atrial Systole

40mL

18

Stroke Volume

-70mL

19

EF

0.53mL

20

Necessity of Balanced Ventricular Output

1. Right ventricular output exceeds left ventricular output
2. Pressure backs up
3. Fluid accumulates in pulmonary tissues

1. Left ventricular output exceeds right ventricular output
2. Pressure backs up
3. Fluid accumulates in systemic tissue

21

Nerve Supply to the Heart

Autonomous: Intrinsic Rate
Receives additional input from the CNS
Sympathetic and parasympathetic input

22

Autonomic Regulation

Sympathetic stimulation to the heart originates in the lower cervical to upper thoracic spinal cord
Speeds up the heart and increases blood flow and ventricular output

23

Parasympathetic Stimulation

Originates in the nuclei of the vagus nerve in the medulla oblongata
Vagus nerve innervates SA and AV nodes
Slows the heart

24

Cardiac Output

Amount of blood pumped per beat per minute
Affected by stroke volume and heart rate (HR increases CO the most)

25

Cardiac Reserve

Difference between maximum output and output at rest

26

Three Factors that Affect Stroke Volume

Preload
Contractility
Afterload

27

Preload

Starling's Law of the Heart
Amount of tension on ventricular myocardium before it contracts
Increased Preload=Increased Contraction Strength

28

Starling's Law of the Heart

Ventricles eject as much blood as they receive
The more they are stretched, the harder they contract

29

Contractility

Contraction force for a given preload
Increased interaction affects stroke volume

30

Positive Inotropes

Increase contractility

31

Negative Inotropes

Decrease contractility

32

Afterload

The pressure that must be overcome before a semilunar valve can open
The force the ventricle is pumping against
Increased afterload increases contractility
Chronic increase in afterload results in hypertrophy

33

Stroke Volume vs. Preload

Increased SV=Increased Preload
Decreased SV=Decreased Preload
Increased SV=Increased Contractility
Decreased SV=Decreased Contractility
Increased SV=Decreased Afterload
Decreased SV=Increased Afterload

34

Sympathetic Stimulation

Increases HR, contractility, and stroke volume
Tachycardia

35

Parasympathetic Stimulation

Decreases HR
Bradycardia
Vagus nerve carries parasympathetic impulses to the heart

36

Coronary Artery Disease

Heart muscle receives insufficient blood supply due to the narrowing of vessels

37

Angina Pectoris

Heart pain from oxygen deprivation of cardiac muscle

38

Myocardial Infarction

Dead of area of heart muscle from lack of oxygen
Replaced by scar tissue

39

Circulatory Route

Heart--Aorta--Arteries--Arterioles--Capillaries--Venules--Veins--Vena Cava--Heart

40

Arteries

Carry blood from heart to capillaries in all tissues

41

Capillaries

Have thin walls to allow diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and fluid

42

Veins

Bring blood from tissues back to heart

43

Arteries

Conducting arteries are the largest
Pulmonary, aorta, common carotid
All near the heart
"Main highway"

44

Medium Vessels

"Exit ramps"
Lots of smooth muscle

45

Distributing Arteries

Distribute blood to specific organs

46

Arterioles

Small arteries delivering blood to capillaries
Metarterioles form branches into capillary beds

47

Small Vessels

Resistance vessels
"Neighborhood"

48

Capillaries

Connect arterioles to venules
Sole source of exchange
Found near every cell in the body buy more extensive in highly active tissue (muscles, liver, kidneys, and brain)

49

Continuous Capillaries

Intercellular clefts are gaps between neighboring cells
Skeletal and smooth, connective tissue and lungs
4nm
Glucose, ions, amino acids

50

Fenestrated Capillaries

Plasma membranes have many holes
Kidneys, small intestine, choroid plexuses, ciliary process, and endocrine glands
20-100nm
H2O, retains proteins

51

Sinusoids

Very large fenestrations
Incomplete basement membrane
Liver, bone marrow, spleen, anterior pituitary, and parathyroid gland
30-40um
How clotting factors enter circulation