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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (51)
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1

Flow is governed by...

Pressure and resistance

2

Pressure

Moves fluid

3

Resistance

Opposes movement

4

By pulling back a syringe...

We increase the volume and decrease the pressure
The pressure outside the syringe is greater than the inside, so air moves in

5

By pushing on a syringe...

We decrease the volume and increase the pressure
The pressure outside the syringe is less than the inside, so air moves out

6

Heart Sounds

S1 and S2

7

S1

Closure of the AV valves
"Lub"

8

S2

Closure of the semilunar valves
"Dub"

9

Valvular Regurgitation

A condition in which blood leaks in the wrong direction because one or more heart valves closes improperly
Mitral valve prolapse is a common cause

10

Events of Ventricular Systole

Ventricular contraction
Atrial relaxation (filling)

11

Events of Ventricular Diastole

Ventricular relaxation (filling)
Atrial diastole continues throughout most of diastole
Atrial systole (ejection into ventricles) occurs near the end of diastole

12

End Diastolic Volume

Volume in each ventricle at the end of diastole (120-130mL)

13

End Systolic Volume

Volume remaining after systole (50-60mL)

14

Stroke Volume

Volume ejected per beat (EDV-ESV)

15

Ejection Fraction

Blood at beginning of systole ejected during systole
(EF=SV/EDV)
Lower EF indicated you are not pumping as much blood per beat, so therefore not as much blood to tissues

16

Ventricular Diastole (Passive Filling)

30mL

17

Atrial Systole

40mL

18

Stroke Volume

-70mL

19

EF

0.53mL

20

Necessity of Balanced Ventricular Output

1. Right ventricular output exceeds left ventricular output
2. Pressure backs up
3. Fluid accumulates in pulmonary tissues

1. Left ventricular output exceeds right ventricular output
2. Pressure backs up
3. Fluid accumulates in systemic tissue

21

Nerve Supply to the Heart

Autonomous: Intrinsic Rate
Receives additional input from the CNS
Sympathetic and parasympathetic input

22

Autonomic Regulation

Sympathetic stimulation to the heart originates in the lower cervical to upper thoracic spinal cord
Speeds up the heart and increases blood flow and ventricular output

23

Parasympathetic Stimulation

Originates in the nuclei of the vagus nerve in the medulla oblongata
Vagus nerve innervates SA and AV nodes
Slows the heart

24

Cardiac Output

Amount of blood pumped per beat per minute
Affected by stroke volume and heart rate (HR increases CO the most)

25

Cardiac Reserve

Difference between maximum output and output at rest

26

Three Factors that Affect Stroke Volume

Preload
Contractility
Afterload

27

Preload

Starling's Law of the Heart
Amount of tension on ventricular myocardium before it contracts
Increased Preload=Increased Contraction Strength

28

Starling's Law of the Heart

Ventricles eject as much blood as they receive
The more they are stretched, the harder they contract

29

Contractility

Contraction force for a given preload
Increased interaction affects stroke volume

30

Positive Inotropes

Increase contractility