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Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (65)
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1

Mechanical Digestion

Physical breakdown of food into smaller particles

Teeth and churning action of stomach and intestines

2

Chemical Digestion

Series of hydrolysis reactions that break macromolecules into their monomers

Enzymes from saliva, stomach, pancreas, and intestines

3

Results of Chemical Digestion

Polysaccharides into monosaccharides
Proteins into amino acids
Fats into glycerol and fatty acids

4

Which buffer system uses HPO4 to buffer secreted acid in the kidney?

The Phosphate Buffer System

5

What is responsible for the detection of blood osmolarity?

Osmoreceptors located in the hypothalamus

6

What does not elicit the release of aldosterone?

ADH
Does not have anything to do with sodium

7

Subdivisions of the Digestive System

Digestive tract and accessory organs

8

Digestive Tract

16 foot long tube extending from the mouth to anus

9

Accessory Organs

Aid in digestion but are not part of the alimentary canal

Teeth, tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, salivary glands

10

Layers of the GI Tract

1. Mucosal layer
2. Submucosal layer
3. Muscularis layer
4. Serosa layer

11

Mucosa

Inner lining
Stratified squamous epithelium, simple columnar epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae

12

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

In mouth, esophagus, and anus
Tough

13

Simple Columnar Epithelium

Secretes enzymes and absorbs nutrients
Specialized cells (goblet cells) secrete mucous onto cell surface
Enteroendocrine cells secrete hormones controlling organ function

14

Lamina Propria

Thin layer of loose connective tissue
Contains blood vessels and lymphatic tissue

15

Muscularis Mucosae

Thin layer of smooth muscle
Causes folds to form in mucosal layer
Increases local movements increasing absorption with exposure to "new" nutrients

16

Submucosa

Loose connective tissue containing blood vessels, glands, and lymphatic tissue
Meissner's Plexus: parasympathetic, causes vasoconstriction

17

Muscularis

Skeletal muscle for voluntary control in mouth, pharynx, upper esophagus, and anus
Smooth muscle for mixing, crushing, and propelling food by peristalsis
Auerbach's Plexus for sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of smooth muscle layers

18

Serosa

Serous membrane
Covers all organs and walls of cavities not open to the outside of the body
Secretes slippery fluid
Consists of connective tissue covered with simple squamous epithelium

19

Peritoneum

Visceral layer covers organs
Parietal layer lines the walls of the body cavity

20

Greater Omentum

Prevents organs from moving around
Hangs down from the stomach
Contains blood and lymphatic vessels

21

Mesocolon

Connects intestines together

22

Lesser Omentum

Connects stomach to liver
"Beer belly"

23

Lips and Cheeks

Contain buccinator muscle that keeps food between upper and lower teeth

24

Oral Cavity Proper

Hard palate, soft palate, and uvula

25

Tongue

Responsible for moving food
Attached to hyoid, mandible, hard palate, and styloid process

26

Tooth Structure

1. Crown
2. Neck
3. Roots
4. Pulp cavity

27

Composition of Teeth

Enamel
Dentin
Cementum

28

Enamel

Hardest substance in the body
Calcium phosphate or carbonate

29

Dentin

Calcified connective tissue

30

Cementum

Bone-like
Periodontal ligament penetrates it