Lymphatic/Respiratory Flashcards Preview

Anatomy II > Lymphatic/Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lymphatic/Respiratory Deck (44):
1

Autoimmune Diseases

Failure of self-tolerance
Production of autoantibodies

2

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease

Hereditary lack of T and B cells
Vulnerability to opportunistic infection

3

AIDS

Invades helper T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells by tricking them to internalize viruses

4

Retrovirus

Reverse Transcriptase
Uses viral RNA as template to synthesize DNA

5

Functions of Respiratory System

Olfaction
Acid-base balance
Blood and lymph flow
Expulsion of abdominal contents

6

Airflow in Lungs

Bronchi--Bronchioles--Alveoli

7

Conducting Division

Passages serve for airflow, nostrils to bronchioles

8

Respiratory Division

Alveoli and distal gas-exchange regions

9

Upper Respiratory Tract

Organs in head, neck, nose, and larynx

10

Lower Respiratory Tract

Larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli

11

Nose Functions

Warms, cleanses, and humidifies inhaled air
Detects odors
Resonating chamber that amplifies voice

12

Nasal Cavity

Extends from nostrils to choanae
Ethmoid and sphenoid bones compose the roof
Palate forms the floor

13

Vestibule

Dilated chamber inside ala nasi

14

Nasal Septum

Divides cavity into right and left chambers called nasal fossae

15

Superior, Middle, and Inferior Nasal Conchae

3 folds of tissue on the lateral wall of nasal fossae
Mucus membranes supported by thin scroll-like turbinate bones

16

Meatuses

Narrow air passage beneath each conchae
Narrowness and turbulence ensures air contacts mucus membranes

17

Mucosa

Traps inhaled particles

18

Cilia

Drives debris-laden mucus into pharynx to be swallowed

19

Nosebleed

Spontaneous epistaxis

20

Nasopharynx

Receives auditory tubes and contains pharyngeal tonsil

21

Oropharynx

Space between soft palate and root of the tongue
Goes down to the hyoid bone

22

Laryngopharynx

Hyoid bone to cricoid cartilage

23

Glottis

Superior opening of the larynx

24

Epiglottis

Flap of tissue that guards the glottis, directs food and drink to the esophagus

25

Vestibular Folds of Larynx

Superior pair, close glottis during swallowing

26

Vocal Cords

Produce sound

27

Intrinsic Muscles

Rotate corniculate and arytenoid cartilages, which adducts (high pitch) or abducts (low pitch) vocal cords

28

Extrinsic Muscles

Connect larynx to hyoid bone
Elevates the larynx during swallowing

29

Trachea

Rigid tube 4.5in long and 2.5in in diameter
Lined with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium
Adjusts air flow by expanding or contracting

30

Primary Bronchi

Arise from trachea
Right slightly wider

31

Secondary Bronchi

Branches into one secondary bronchus for each lobe

32

Tertiary Bronchi

10 on the right, 8 on the left

33

Bronchioles

Have layer of smooth muscles
Lack cartilage

34

Pulmonary Lobule

Portion ventilated by one bronchiole

35

Terminal Bronchiole

Has cilia, gives off two or more respiratory bronchioles

36

Respiratory Bronchioles

Where gas exchange occurs

37

Alveolar Ducts

End in alveolar sacs

38

Alveoli

Bud from respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs

39

Type 1 Alveolar Cells

Simple squamous cells where gas exchange occurs

40

Type 2 Alveolar Cells

Septal cells
Secrete alveolar fluid containing surfactant

41

Alveolar Dust Cells

Wandering macrophages that remove debris

42

Alveolar Membrane

Alveolar epithelial, basement membrane, alveolar endothelial

43

Bronchial Arteries

Branch off of the aorta to supply oxygenated blood to lung tissue

44

Venous Drainage

Returns all blood to the heart