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Flashcards in Anatomy Practical Exam Deck (82):
1

Alimentary Canal

Whole passage along which food passes through the body from mouth to anus

2

Accessory Organ

Organ that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract

3

Peritoneal Cavity

Potential space between parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum

4

Gastroesophageal Sphincter

A ring of smooth muscle fibers connecting esophagus and stomach

5

Pyloric Sphincter

Band of smooth muscle at junction of pylorus and duodenum

6

Duodenum

First part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach

7

Jejunum

Middle part of small intestine

8

Ileum

Third portion of small intestine

9

Colon

Long, coiled tubelike organ that removes water from digested foods

10

Pancreas (Digestive)

Large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum

11

Liver

Large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates

12

Mucosa

Mucous membrane

13

Submucosa

Layer of areolar tissue beneath mucosa

14

Muscularis Externa

Region of muscle adjacent to submucosa
Responsible for peristalsis

15

Serosa

Tissue of serous membrane

16

Acinar Cells

Cluster of cells that resemble a "berry"
Produce pancreatic enzymes

17

Pancreatic Islet

Clusters of cells scattered throughout the pancreas that produce insulin

18

Liver Lobule

Unit of the liver consisting of masses of liver cells

19

Digestive Enzyme

Enzyme that breaks down polymeric macromolecules into building blocks

20

Chemical Digestion

Digestion using enzymes

21

Emulsification

The breakdown of fat globules in duodenum into tiny droplets

22

Bile

Bitter alkaline fluid that aids in digestion

23

Salivary Amylase

Source: Salivary glands
Function: Begins starch digestion in the mouth

24

Pepsin

Source: Stomach
Convertion: Converted from pepsinogen by HCl
Function: Digests proteins to shorter peptide chains, which then pass to the small intestine to complete digestion

25

Trypsin

Source: Pancreas
Convertion: Converted from trypsinogen by enterokinase
Function: Digests proteins

26

Pancreatic Lipase

Source: Pancreas
Function: Digests fat

27

Brush Border Enzymes

Source: Small intestine
Function: Carry out some of the final stages of chemical digestion

28

Endocrine Organ

Glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the blood

29

Hormone

Regulatory substance transported in tissue fluids to stimulate specific cells

30

Target Tissue

Tissue or organ that is affected by a hormone

31

Negative Feedback

Counteraction of an effect by its own influence

32

Hypothalamus

Region of the forebrain below the thalamus that coordinates autonomic nervous system and pituitary

33

Thyroid Gland

Ductless gland that regulates growth and development through metabolism

34

Parathyroid Glands

Produce parathyroid hormones
Usually have four

35

Pineal Gland

Conical mass of tissue behind the third ventricle of the brain secreting hormone-like substances

36

Thymus

Lymphoid organ that produces T Cells

37

Pancreas (Endocrine)

Secretes hormones such as insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar

38

Adrenal Cortex

Outer portion of the adrenal gland that produces steroid hormones to regulate carbohydrate and fat metabolism

39

Adrenal Medulla

Inner part of adrenal gland that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine

40

Ovaries

Produce ova/eggs

41

Testes

Produce spermatozoa

42

Antidiuretic Hormone

Secreted from: Posterior Pituitary
Stimulus: Nerve impulses from the hypothalamus when water decreases
Target Tissue: Kidneys

43

Oxytocin

Secreted from: Posterior Pituitary
Stimulus: Nerve impulses from hypothalamus or cervix
Target Tissue: Uterus, mammary glands

44

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

Secreted from: Anterior Pituitary
Stimulus: TRH from the hypothalamus
Target Tissue: Thyroid

45

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

Secreted from: Anterior Pituitary
Stimulus: CRH from hypothalamus
Target Tissue: Adrenal Cortex

46

Growth Hormone

Secreted from: Anterior Pituitary
Stimulus: GHRH from hypothalamus
Target Tissue: Liver, bone, cartilage, muscle, fat

47

Prolactin

Secreted from: Anterior Pituitary
Stimulus: PRH from hypothalamus
Target Tissue: Mammary glands, testes

48

Melatonin

Secreted from: Pineal Gland
Stimulus: Dark increases, light decreases
Target Tissue: Brain

49

Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine
(T3 and T4)

Secreted from: Thyroid
Stimulus: Increased metabolic rate
Target Tissue: Most tissues

50

Calcitonin

Secreted from: Thyroid
Stimulus: Hypercalcemia
Target Tissue: Bone

51

Thymosin and Thymopoietin

Secreted from: Thymus
Stimulus: Immune development
Target Tissue: Immune cells (T lymphocytes)

52

Parathyroid Hormone

Secreted from: Parathyroids
Stimulus: Hypocalcemia
Target Tissue: Bone, kidneys, small intestine

53

Cortisol

Secreted from: Adrenal Cortex
Stimulus: ACTH from anterior pituitary during stress
Target Tissue: Most tissues

54

Aldosterone

Secreted from: Adrenal Cortex
Stimulus: Decreased sodium, increased blood calcium, decreased blood volume/blood pressure
Target Tissue: Kidney

55

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Secreted from: Adrenal Medulla
Stimulus: Sympathetic impulses from the hypothalamus
Target Tissue: Most tissues

56

Insulin

Secreted from: Pancreatic Islets
Stimulus: Hyperglycemia
Target Tissue: Most tissues

57

Glucagon

Secreted from: Pancreatic Islets
Stimulus: Hypoglycemia
Target Tissue: Primarily liver

58

Testes

Organs that produce spermatozoa

59

Seminiferous Tubules

Specific location of meiosis in the testes

60

Epididymis

Highly convoluted duct behind the testes from where sperm passes to the vas deferens

61

Vas Deferens

Duct that conveys sperm from testicles to urethra

62

Spermatic Cord

Bundle of nerves, ducts, and blood vessels connecting testicles to the abdomen

63

Seminal Vesicle

Each of a pair of glands that open into the vas deferens near its junction and secretes components of semen

64

Prostate Gland

Gland surrounding the neck of the male bladder that releases prostatic fluid

65

Corpus Spongiosum

Mass of erectile tissue along the corpora cavernosa

66

Corpora Cavernosa

Mass of erectile tissue forming the penis

67

Ovarian Follicles

Fluid-filled structure where ovum develops before ovulation

68

Uterine Tube

Transport ovum from ovary to uterus

69

Uterus

Where offspring are conceived and gestate

70

Cervix

Necklike passage on the lower end of the uterus

71

Vagina

Muscular tube from external genitals to cervix

72

Vulva

Female external genitals

73

Mammary Glands

Milk-producing glands

74

Meiosis I

Cell division that produces reproductive cells

75

Meiosis II

Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II

76

Haploid

Single set of unpaired chromosomes

77

Spermatogenesis

Formation of sperm

78

Oogenesis

Formation of ovum

79

Prophase

Chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and nuclear envelope disappears
Crossing over occurs

80

Metaphase

Chromosomes become attached to spindle fibers

81

Anaphase

Chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle

82

Telophase

Chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed