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Flashcards in Anatomy Practical Exam Deck (82)
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1

Alimentary Canal

Whole passage along which food passes through the body from mouth to anus

2

Accessory Organ

Organ that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract

3

Peritoneal Cavity

Potential space between parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum

4

Gastroesophageal Sphincter

A ring of smooth muscle fibers connecting esophagus and stomach

5

Pyloric Sphincter

Band of smooth muscle at junction of pylorus and duodenum

6

Duodenum

First part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach

7

Jejunum

Middle part of small intestine

8

Ileum

Third portion of small intestine

9

Colon

Long, coiled tubelike organ that removes water from digested foods

10

Pancreas (Digestive)

Large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum

11

Liver

Large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates

12

Mucosa

Mucous membrane

13

Submucosa

Layer of areolar tissue beneath mucosa

14

Muscularis Externa

Region of muscle adjacent to submucosa
Responsible for peristalsis

15

Serosa

Tissue of serous membrane

16

Acinar Cells

Cluster of cells that resemble a "berry"
Produce pancreatic enzymes

17

Pancreatic Islet

Clusters of cells scattered throughout the pancreas that produce insulin

18

Liver Lobule

Unit of the liver consisting of masses of liver cells

19

Digestive Enzyme

Enzyme that breaks down polymeric macromolecules into building blocks

20

Chemical Digestion

Digestion using enzymes

21

Emulsification

The breakdown of fat globules in duodenum into tiny droplets

22

Bile

Bitter alkaline fluid that aids in digestion

23

Salivary Amylase

Source: Salivary glands
Function: Begins starch digestion in the mouth

24

Pepsin

Source: Stomach
Convertion: Converted from pepsinogen by HCl
Function: Digests proteins to shorter peptide chains, which then pass to the small intestine to complete digestion

25

Trypsin

Source: Pancreas
Convertion: Converted from trypsinogen by enterokinase
Function: Digests proteins

26

Pancreatic Lipase

Source: Pancreas
Function: Digests fat

27

Brush Border Enzymes

Source: Small intestine
Function: Carry out some of the final stages of chemical digestion

28

Endocrine Organ

Glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the blood

29

Hormone

Regulatory substance transported in tissue fluids to stimulate specific cells

30

Target Tissue

Tissue or organ that is affected by a hormone