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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (250):
1

Functions of the Kidney

1. Eliminates nitrogenous waste
2. Regulates blood ionic composition
3. Regulates blood pH
4. Regulates blood volume
5. Releases erythropoietin and calcitriol
6. Excretes wastes and foreign substances
7. Detoxifies free radicals and certain drugs

2

Glomerulus

Ball of capillaries in the renal corpuscle

3

Glomerular Capsule/Bowman's Capsule

Performs the first step in filtration of blood to form urine
Located in the renal corpuscle

4

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

Beginning of the nephron
Regulates the pH of the filtrate by exchanging hydrogen ions for bicarbonate ions
Secretes creatinine

5

Descending Loop of Henle/Nephron Loop

Thin limb
Low permeability to ions and urea, high permeability to water
Water passes by osmosis from tubule to ECF, leaving NaCl

6

Ascending Loop of Henle/Nephron Loop

Thick and thin segment
Drains urine into the distal convoluted tubule
Has pumps that cotransport Na, K, and Cl into ECF

7

Distal Convoluted Tubule

End of the nephron
Responsible for the reabsorption of sodium, water, and secretion of hydrogen potassium

8

Collecting Duct

1. Consists of a series of tubules and ducts that connect the nephrons to the ureter
2. Participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and excretion (regulated by aldosterone)
3. Concentrates urine

9

Pathway Flow of Glomerular Filtrate

1. Glomerular capsule (capsular filtrate)
2. PCT (tubular fluid)
3. Nephron loop
4. DCT
5. Collecting duct
6. Papillary duct (urine)
7. Minor calyx
8. Major calyx
9. Renal pelvis
10. Ureter
11. Urinary bladder
12. Urethra

10

Ureters Function and Physiological Valve

Drain urine from bladder to urethra
Valve is a fold of bladder mucosa by hydrostatic backpressure that prevents the backflow of urine

11

Serosa

Tissue of a serous membrane

12

Mucosa

Mucous membrane

13

Bladder Location

Muscular sac on the floor of the pelvic cavity, inferior to the peritoneum and posterior to the pubic symphysis

14

Bladder Mucosa Epithelium

Transitional epithelium

15

Detrusor of Bladder

Muscularis that consists of three layers of smooth muscle

16

Trigone of Bladder

Openings of two ureters and urethra from this smooth-surfaced triangular area

17

3 Urethral Regions for Males

1. Prostatic Urethra
2. Membranous Urethra
3. Spongy Urethra

18

Cystitis

Bacterial contamination of the urethra is more common in females because of their shorter urethra and location of orifice

19

Blood Supply to the Nephron

Artery --> Capillary --> Artery --> Capillary --> Vein blood flow

20

3 Basic Processes by the Nephron

1. Glomerular filtration
2. Tubular reabsorption
3. Tubular secretion

21

Glomerular Filtration

Portion of blood plasma is filtered into the kidney
Capillary exchange

22

Tubular Reabsorption

Water and useful substances reabsorbed into the blood

Tubule to Blood

23

Tubular Secretion

Wastes are removed from the blood and secreted into the urine

Blood to Tubule

24

Difference Between Blood and Glomerular Filtrate

Blood plasma contains large molecules and protein that are not present in glomerular filtrate

25

Layers of the Glomerular Filter

1. Fenestrated endothelium
2. Basement membrane
3. Filtration slits

26

Fenestrated Endothelium

Highly permeable, but blood cells do not pass through

27

Basement Membrane

Excludes molecules larger than 8nm

28

Filtration Slits

Numerous extensions known as pedicels
Large anions cannot pass

29

Podocytes

Cells that wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus

30

What substances are allowed/not allowed to pass through the glomerular membrane?

Pass: urea, glucose, insulin
Do not pass: albumin and hemoglobin

31

Glomerular Filtration Rate

10.5-12.5 mL/min
180 L/day

32

Reabsorption

Process of reclaiming water and solutes from the tubular fluid and returning them to the blood
Occurs until the plasma level reaches a specific concentration known as the renal threshold

33

What substances are reabsorbed in tubular reabsorption?

1. Sodium
2. Water
3. Glucose/amino acids
4. Potassium
5. Urea

34

Where does reabsorption take place?

In the glomerulus

35

Where is the majority of glomerular fluid reabsorbed?

Proximal convoluted tubule

36

Where is reabsorption a non-hormone-dependent process?

Distal convoluted tubule

37

In what part is reabsorption regulated by hormones?

Collecting duct

38

What is the "transport maximum"/"renal threshold"?

Concentration of a substance dissolved in the blood above which the kidneys begin to remove it into the urine

39

Location of Countercurrent Mechanism

Nephron loop

40

What substances are reabsorbed through the descending nephron loop and ascending nephron loop?

Descending: water
Ascending: sodium, potassium, and chlorine

41

How is the reabsorption related to osmolarity of the interstitial fluid of the medulla?

Descending: raises osmolarity
Ascending: lowers osmolarity

42

What creates high osmolarity of the medullary interstitial fluid?

Water leaves descending limb through osmosis and leaves NaCl behind

43

What substances are secreted into glomerular filtrate?

1. Potassium
2. Hydrogen
3. Ammonium
4. Creatinine
5. Urea
6. Some hormones and drugs

44

Bicarbonate Buffer System Formula

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 HCO3 + H+

45

How can the nephrons affect body pH?

Proximal tubule regulates pH by exchanging H+ for bicarbonate until a state of acid/alkaline base is attained

46

Normal Components of Urine

1. Urea
2. Chloride
3. Sodium
4. Potassium
5. Creatinine

47

Causes of Glycosuria

Elevated blood glucose levels

48

Causes of Proteinuria

Caused by kidney disease that can allow proteins such as albumin to leak

49

Causes of Hematuria

UTIs can cause blood cells to leak into the urine

50

Causes of Pyuria

White blood cells can be found in the blood during infections

51

Causes of Ketouria

Metabolic abnormalities, dietary conditions

52

Causes of Bacteriuria

Bacteria in the urine can be caused by UTIs

53

Stimulus for Antidiuretic Hormone

Dehydration, loss of blood volume, and rising blood osmolarity stimulate arterial baroreceptors and hypothalamic osmoreceptors to stimulate the posterior pituitary to secrete ADH

54

Mechanism for Antidiuretic Hormone

ADH makes the collecting duct more permeable to water, so water reenters the blood and tissues instead of the urine

55

Stimulus for Aldosterone

Salt-retaining hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex when blood sodium concentration falls or potassium concentration rises

56

Mechanism for Aldosterone

Acts on the thick segment of the ascending loop, DCT, and cortical portion of the collecting duct to stimulate the segments to reabsorb Na and secrete K
Water and Cl follow Na

57

Stimulus for Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

Secreted by the heart in response to high blood pressure

58

Mechanism for Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

1. Dilates afferent arteriole and constricts efferent arteriole to increase the GFR
2. Antagonizes the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism by inhibiting renin and aldosterone secretion
3. Inhibits secretion of ADH
4. Inhibits NaCl reabsorption

59

Stimulus for Renin

Drop in blood pressure stimulates the release of renin
Secreted from the juxtaglomerular kidney cells, stimulated by the macula densa

60

Mechanism for Renin

Restores perfusion pressure in the kidneys
Combines with angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I

61

Stimulus for Angiotensin

Stimulated by renin and low blood pressure
Causes vasoconstriction and increases blood pressure

62

Erythropoietin

Produced in the kidney
Stimulated by drop in O2 pressure

63

Dilute Urine Mechanism

Water reabsorbed in the thin limb, ions reabsorbed in the thick limb

64

Osmolarity of Dilute Urine

Low

65

Specific Gravity of Dilute Urine

High

66

Concentrated Urine Mechanism

Principal cells and ADH can remove water from the urine if interstitial fluid has a high osmolarity
Cells in the collecting duct reabsorb more water and urea when ADH is increased

67

Osmolarity of Concentrated Urine

Low

68

Specific Gravity of Concentrated Urine

Low

69

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism

Involved in the regulation of plasma sodium concentration and arterial blood pressure
Ultimately want to raise blood pressure

70

ACE Inhibitors

Prevent the body from creating angiotensin II and relaxes blood vessels and reduces the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys

71

Diuretic Effects

Help your body get rid of unneeded water and salt by increasing the amount of salt and water that comes through the urine

72

Diuretic Uses

Used for high blood pressure, heart failure, kidney and liver problems, and glaucoma

73

Fluid Compartments (%)

65% ICF
35% ECF

74

Categories of ECF

25% interstitial fluid
8% blood plasma and lymph
2% transcellular fluid

75

Sources of Water

Metabolic and Preformed

76

Metabolic Water Production Formula

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

77

Gains of Water in a Day

700 mL/day in food
1600 mL/day in drink

78

Losses of Water in a Day

1500 mL/day as urine
200 mL/day as feces
300 mL/day as expired breath
100 mL/day as sweat
400 mL/day as cutaneous transpiration

79

Hypovolemia

Occurs when proportionate amounts of water and sodium are lost without replacement

80

Dehydration

Occurs when the body eliminates significantly more water than sodium

81

Fluid Excess

Both sodium and water are retained and the ECF remains isotonic

82

Fluid Sequestration

A condition in which excess fluid accumulates in a particular location

83

Electrolyte Concentration in the Blood

Chlorine and sodium are very abundant

84

Electrolyte Concentration in ICF

Potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus are very abundant

85

Three Buffering Systems

1. Bicarbonate Buffer System
2. Phosphate Buffer System
3. Protein Buffer System

86

Phosphate Buffer System Equation

H2PO4 HPO4^2 + H+

87

Protein Buffer System Equation

COOH ---> COO + H+

88

Protein Buffer System

More concentrated than either bicarbonate or phosphate buffers
Amounts for about three-quarters of all chemical buffering in the body fluids

89

Respiratory Control of pH

HCO3 + H+ ---> H2CO3 ---> CO2 + H2O

90

How does buffering control pH?

Buffers resist changes of pH in the body fluids

91

How does secretion control pH?

Secretion involves decreasing the rate of hydrogen ions secreted into the urine and the rate of bicarbonate ion reabsorption

92

Insensible Water Loss

Water loss due to water that passes through the skin and is lost by evaporation

93

Sensible Water Loss

Urination

94

Obligatory Water Loss

The minimal amount of fluid loss from the body that can occur

95

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory failure where the lungs cannot remove enough of the carbon dioxide in the body

96

Respiratory Alkalosis

Increased respiration elevates the blood pH beyond the normal range and reduces carbon dioxide levels in the blood

97

Metabolic Acidosis

When the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body

98

Metabolic Alkalosis

Decreased hydrogen ion concentration, leading to increased bicarbonate

99

Mucosa Cells in the Esophagus

Stratified squamous

100

Mucosa Cells in the GI Tract

Simple columnar

101

What is the muscularis layer composed of?

Skeletal and smooth muscle

102

Serosa

Serous membrane that covers all organs and walls of cavities not open to the outside of the body

103

Enzymes Produced in the Mouth

Amylase
Lingual lipase
Lysozyme
Immunoglobulin A

104

Amylase

Starch digestion

105

Lysozyme

Kills bacteria

106

Immunoglobulin A

Inhibits bacterial growth

107

Components of Saliva

Amylase, lingual lipase, mucus, lysozyme, immunoglobulin A, electrolytes, water

108

Function of Saliva

Moistens, dissolves food for taste, begins starch and fat digestion, cleanses teeth, inhibits bacteria, binds food together in a bolus

109

Sympathetic Stimulation of Salivary Glands

Produce less abundant, thicker saliva with more mucus

110

Parasympathetic Stimulation of Salivary Glands

Abundant, thin saliva rich in enzymes

111

Psychological Stimulus of Saliva

Salivation is increased

112

What keeps swallowed food from going up into the nasopharynx?

Soft palate

113

Three Steps to Swallowing

1. Oral Phase
2. Pharyngeal Phase
3. Esophageal Phase

114

Oral Phase

Bolus is formed in the mouth

115

Pharyngeal Phase

Tongue and soft palate block food and drink, esophagus widens

116

Esophageal Phase

Peristalsis pushes food down, muscle above bolus constricts

117

Three Names for Sphincter at Distal Esophagus

1. Lower esophageal sphincter
2. Cardiac sphincter
3. Gastroesophageal sphincter

118

Function of Cardiac Sphincter

Serves as a valve that contracts to prevent acid reflux and relaxes to allow food to pass

119

Volume of Gastric Juice Per Day

2 quarts per day

120

Mucous Cell

Secretes mucus

121

Regenerative Cell

Divide rapidly

122

Parietal Cell

Secretes HCl, intrinsic factor, and ghrelin

123

Chief Cell

Secretes gastric lipase, pepsinogen

124

Enteroendocrine Cell

Secretes hormones and paracrine messengers

125

Functions of Hydrochloric Acid

1. Activates pepsin and lingual lipase
2. Breaks up connective tissues and plant cell walls
3. Converts ferric ions to ferrous ions
4. Destroys bacteria and pathogens

126

Intrinsic Factor

1. Essential for the absorption of B12 by the small intestine
2. Necessary for RBC production

127

Pepsinogen

Becomes pepsin when converted by HCl

128

Gastrin

Stimulates the secretion of HCl

129

Sympathetic Stimulation on Stomach

Peristalsis is reduced

130

Parasympathetic Stimulation on Stomach

Motility increased; gastric juices secreted

131

Enterogastric Reflex

Gastrin release is shut off and inhibits gastric motility and the secretion of HCl

132

CCK

Secreted from enteroendocrine cells in the duodenum
Stimulated by the introduction of HCl, amino acids, or fatty acids into the stomach
Stimulates release of bile into the small intestine and the release of enzymes from the pancreas

133

The Reason HCl Does Not Bother Gastric Mucosa:

1. Potassium ions diffuse from parietal cells into the lumen
2. Active transport pump brings potassium back into the parietal cells
3. Chloride ions diffuse passively from the cell to the lumen, and their negative charges balance the positive charges of the hydrogen
4. An exchanger on the opposite face of the parietal cell balances the loss of chloride ions by importing chloride ions from the blood in exchange for bicarbonate
5. Water reacts with carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid, which dissociates into hydrogen and bicarbonate

134

Chyme

Pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food

135

Three Stages of Gastric Secretion and Motility

1. Cephalic Stage
2. Gastric Stage
3. Intestinal Stage

136

Cephalic Stage

Getting the stomach ready
1. Cerebral cortex stimulates parasympathetic nervous system
2. Vagus nerve increases stomach muscle and glandular activity

137

Gastric Stage

Stomach working
1. Nervous control keeps stomach alive
2. Endocrine influences over stomach activity

138

Intestinal Stage

1. Intestinal gastrin stimulates the stomach
2. Secretion of CCK and enterogastric reflex inhibit motility

139

Pathway for Bile Secretion

1. Bile capillaries
2. Common hepatic duct
3. Common bile duct
4. Duodenum

140

Purpose of Bile

1. Increases absorption of fats by emulsification and coating the droplets
2. Route of excretion for bilirubin

141

Endocrine Gland

Secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream

142

Exocrine Gland

Secretes products though ducts opening onto an epithelium

143

Endocrine Function of the Pancreas

Secretes insulin and glucagon to control blood sugar levels

144

Exocrine Function of the Pancreas

Pancreatic juice produced by acinar cells

145

Components of Pancreatic Juice

1. Zymogens (trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase)
2. Ribonuclease
3. Deoxyribonuclease

146

Trypsinogen

Activated by enterokinase (brush border enzyme)

147

Chymotrypsinogen

Activated by trypsin

148

Procarboxypeptidase

Activated by trypsin

149

Pancreatic Duct Drains to...

Join common bile duct and perforate the duodenum

150

Small Intestine

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

151

Villi

Columnar enterocytes
Connected by tight junctions
Main function is absorption

152

Microvilli

Known as brush border
Contain enzymes that complete final stages of chemical digestion

153

Circular Folds

Contain part of the submucosal layer
Slow the progress of chyme

154

Peristaltic Movement

Rhythmic contractions of the longitudinal muscles in the GI tract

155

Segmentation Contractions

Contractions of circular muscles in the digestive tract to slow the progression of chyme

156

Lacteals

Lymphatic vessels of the small intestine that absorb digested fats

157

Enzymes Produced by Intestinal Cells (enteric)

Maltase
Lactase
Sucrase
Erepsin

158

CCK Role in Pancreatic Secretions

Presence causes the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas

159

Secretin Role in Pancreatic Secretions

Stimulate duct cells to secrete water and bicarbonate

160

Lactose Intolerance

Mucosal cells of the small intestine fail to produce lactase

161

Role of Bacteria in Large Intestine

1. Digest cellulose, pectin, and plant polysaccharides
2. Absorb digested material
3. Synthesize vitamins B and K

162

Greater Omentum

Immune contribution, infection and wound isolation, limits spread of infections
Prevents organs from moving around

163

Mesentery and Mesocolon

Attach to the abdominal wall
Mesocolon connects intestines together

164

Digestion

Process of breaking down food by mechanical and enzymatic action in the alimentary canal into substances that can be used by the body

165

Absorption

The process of assimilating substances into cells or across tissues and organs through diffusion or osmosis

166

Monomer of Carbohydrate

Monosaccharide

167

Absorbable Form of Carbohydrate

Glucose

168

Carbohydrate Digestion

1. Mouth: salivary amylase
2. Stomach: none
3. Duodenum: broken down into disaccharides and then into monosaccharides
4. Pancreatic secretions: amylase

169

Where and how do absorbable carbohydrates enter the mucosal cell?

1. Absorbed into mucosal cells after the small intestine
2. Co-transport via Na+ carrier molecule

170

Where do carbohydrates travel after the mucosal cell?

Hepatic portal vein

171

Monomer of Protein

Amino acids

172

Bond That Holds Amino Acids Together

Peptide bond

173

Protein Digestion in the Stomach

1. Denatured by HCl
2. Pepsin is activated to break proteins into single amino acids and smaller polypeptides

174

Protein Digestion in the Small Intestine

1. Proteases produced by the pancreas are secreted to digest polypeptides into smaller units
2. Cells in the wall of the small intestine complete the breakdown of dipeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids, which are absorbed in the bloodstream

175

Protein Digestion by the Pancreas

1. Produces proteases

176

End Result of Protein Digestion

Amino acids are absorbed into the mucosal cell by sodium-dependent amino acid transporters

177

Structure of a Triglyceride

Glycerol and three fatty acids

178

Lipase

Breaks down dietary fats into smaller molecules
Produced by the pancreas

179

Micelles

Lipid molecules that arrange themselves in a spherical form in aqueous solution

180

Chylomicrons

Transport lipids absorbed from intestine to adipose, cardiac, and skeletal muscle tissue

181

Where are absorbed lipids taken into?

1. Small fatty acids enter cells and then blood by simple diffusion
2. Chylomicrons leave the intestinal cells by exocytosis into a lacteal

182

Where do chylomicrons go from a lacteal?

Lacteals to larger lymphatic vessels to thoracic duct to subclavian vein

183

Where are vitamins absorbed?

Small intestine

184

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

A, D, E, and K

185

Why do we rarely see deficiencies of vitamins B or K?

Synthesized in the GI tract

186

What is required for B12 absorption?

Intrinsic factor

187

Where are minerals/electrolytes absorbed?

Duodenum

188

Why does most absorption take place in the small intestine?

Small intestine is highly vascularized and is able to transport nutrients from the epithelium to the blood

189

Examples of Endocrine Glands

Pineal
Pituitary
Pancreas
Ovaries
Testes
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Hypothalamus
Adrenal

190

Examples of Exocrine Glands

Sweat
Salivary
Mammary
Ceruminous
Lacrimal
Sebaceous
Mucous

191

Hormone Receptor

Molecule that binds to a specific hormone, typically found on plasma membranes of cells

192

Receptors for Lipid-Soluble Hormones

Found within the cytoplasm

193

Up-Regulation

An increase of cellular receptors

194

Down-Regulation

A decrease in the number of cellular receptors

195

Lipid Soluble Hormones

Sex hormones (testosterone, progesterone, estrogen)
Steroids (glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids)

196

Water Soluble Hormones

Adrenaline
Noradrenaline
TSH
HGH

197

What are steroid hormones made from?

Cholesterol

198

Which hormone is metabolized by MAO?

Gonadal Hormones
Monoamines

199

Why can't you give insulin, oxytocin, HGH in oral pills?

They will be destroyed by the gastric juice

200

Negative Feedback

The counteraction of an effect by its own influence

Too much glucose triggers the pancreas to produce insulin

201

Positive Feedback

The enhancement of an effect by its own influence on the process that gives rise to it

When contractions start, oxytocin is released and stimulates more oxytocin and more contractions

202

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

Source: Hypothalamus
Released from: Pituitary gland
Action: Binds to receptors and causes the pituitary to create LH and FSH

203

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

Source: Anterior Pituitary
Target: Ovaries/Testes
Action: Stimulates egg/sperm production

204

Luteinizing Hormone

Source: Anterior Pituitary
Target: Ovaries/Testes
Action: Ovulation, sex hormone release

205

Growth Hormone

Source: Anterior Pituitary
Target: Body cells, bones, and muscles
Action: Growth and development

206

Prolactin

Source: Anterior Pituitary
Target: Breasts
Action: Maintains milk secretions

207

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Source: Anterior Pituitary
Target: Thyroid
Stimulus: Hypothalamus releasing factor, decreased blood levels of thyroid hormone
Action: Regulates thyroid hormones

208

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone

Source: Anterior Pituitary
Target: Adrenal Cortex
Stimulus: Low blood level of glucocorticoids, stress
Action: Stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete cortisol

209

Antidiuretic Hormone

Source: Posterior Pituitary
Target: Kidneys
Stimulus: Increased osmolarity of plasma
Action: Inserts aquaporins into the nephron to increase water absorption

210

Oxytocin

Source: Posterior Pituitary
Target: Uterus, breasts
Stimulus: Contractions
Action: Uterine contractions, milk secretion

211

T3 and T4

Source: Thyroid
Target: Most cells
Stimulus: TSH
Action: Increases metabolic rate and body heat

212

Parathyroid Hormone

Source: Anterior pituitary and parathyroid gland
Target: Melanocytes in the skin, osteoclasts
Stimulus: Hypocalcemia
Action: Bone reabsorption (bones), decreases calcium secretion (kidneys), promotes vitamin D activity (blood calcium)

213

Calcitonin

Source: Thyroid
Target: Adrenal cortex
Stimulus: Hypercalcemia
Action: Decreases osteoclasts and bone reabsorption

214

Epinephrine

Source: Adrenal medulla
Target: Heart, lungs, liver, body cells
Stimulus: Fight or flight response
Action: Smooth muscle relaxation in the airways or contraction of smooth muscle in arterioles; inhibits flow to the nephrons

215

Norepinephrine

Source: Adrenal medulla
Target: Heart, lungs, liver, body cells
Stimulus: Fight or flight response
Action: Increases blood pressure, heart rate, and glucose from energy stores; inhibits flow to the nephrons

216

Aldosterone

Source: Adrenal cortex
Target: Kidney
Stimulus: Low blood pressure
Action: Increases sodium reabsorption

217

Androgens

Source: Ovaries, testes, adrenal cortex
Target: Heart, testes
Stimulus: Puberty or menopause
Action: Stimulates the development and maintenance of male and female characteristics

218

Glucocorticoids

Source: Adrenal cortex
Target: Anterior pituitary
Stimulus: ACTH
Action: Inhibit inflammatory processes

219

Insulin

Source: Pancreatic B cell
Target: Liver cell membrane
Stimulus: Hyperglycemia
Effect: Accelerates glucose transport into cells

220

Glucagon

Source: Pancreatic A cell
Target: Liver cells
Stimulus: Hypoglycemia
Effect: Glycogenolysis

221

Diabetes Mellitus

The most common form of diabetes caused by a deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin, which results in a failure to metabolize sugars and starch

222

Diabetes Insipidus

Rare form of diabetes caused by a deficiency of the pituitary hormone vasopressin, which regulates kidney function

223

Type I Diabetes

Insulin-dependent, chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin

224

Type II Diabetes

Long term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin

225

Symptoms of Diabetes

Hyperglycemia
Glycosuria
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Ketouria
Weight loss
Lack of energy/fatigue

226

Different Forms of Hormones

Steroid hormones
Monoamines
Peptide Hormones

227

How are steroid hormones transported?

Transport proteins

228

How are monoamines and peptides transported?

Mixing with blood plasma

229

How do steroid hormones communicate with the cell?

Interact with receptors inside the cell that alter the transcriptional activity of different genes

230

How do monoamines and peptides communicate with the cell?

Bind to receptors on the plasma membrane and activate the target inside of the cell

231

What zone of the adrenal cortex are glucocorticoids produced?

Zona fasciculata and reticularis

232

What zone of the adrenal cortex are mineralcorticoids produced?

Zona glomerulosa

233

What does ACTH stimulate the release of?

Glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex

234

What converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I?

Renin in the kidneys

235

What gland is responsible for epinephrine?

Adrenal medulla

236

Where is the site of filtration?

Glomerular capillaries

237

If glomerular blood pressure is increased, how would glomerular filtration be affected if nothing else changes?

Glomerular filtration will increase

238

What does the myogenic mechanism detect?

Blood pressure

239

What does not elicit the release the of aldosterone?

ADH
Does not have anything to do with sodium

240

Which buffer system uses HPO4 to buffer secreted acid in the kidney?

The Phosphate Buffer System

241

What is responsible for the detection of blood osmolarity?

Osmoreceptors located in the hypothalamus

242

Order of Fat Digestion

Fat globule ---> Glycerol and fatty acids ---> Micelle

243

Muscularis Externa

Primarily responsible for peristalsis

244

What hormone stimulates T3 and T4?

TSH

245

Stratified squamous tissue is found in the...

Mouth and anus

246

Glucosuria without hyperglycemia is...

Renal diabetes

247

Glucosuria with hyperglycemia is...

Diabetes I and II and gestational

248

What portion of the nephron loop is permeable to water?

Descending limb

249

Symporters in the ascending limb of the nephron loop set up what feature in the medulla?

Osmotic gradient

250

Total body represents what percentage of weight?

45%