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1

Functions of the Kidney

1. Eliminates nitrogenous waste
2. Regulates blood ionic composition
3. Regulates blood pH
4. Regulates blood volume
5. Releases erythropoietin and calcitriol
6. Excretes wastes and foreign substances
7. Detoxifies free radicals and certain drugs

2

Glomerulus

Ball of capillaries in the renal corpuscle

3

Glomerular Capsule/Bowman's Capsule

Performs the first step in filtration of blood to form urine
Located in the renal corpuscle

4

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

Beginning of the nephron
Regulates the pH of the filtrate by exchanging hydrogen ions for bicarbonate ions
Secretes creatinine

5

Descending Loop of Henle/Nephron Loop

Thin limb
Low permeability to ions and urea, high permeability to water
Water passes by osmosis from tubule to ECF, leaving NaCl

6

Ascending Loop of Henle/Nephron Loop

Thick and thin segment
Drains urine into the distal convoluted tubule
Has pumps that cotransport Na, K, and Cl into ECF

7

Distal Convoluted Tubule

End of the nephron
Responsible for the reabsorption of sodium, water, and secretion of hydrogen potassium

8

Collecting Duct

1. Consists of a series of tubules and ducts that connect the nephrons to the ureter
2. Participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and excretion (regulated by aldosterone)
3. Concentrates urine

9

Pathway Flow of Glomerular Filtrate

1. Glomerular capsule (capsular filtrate)
2. PCT (tubular fluid)
3. Nephron loop
4. DCT
5. Collecting duct
6. Papillary duct (urine)
7. Minor calyx
8. Major calyx
9. Renal pelvis
10. Ureter
11. Urinary bladder
12. Urethra

10

Ureters Function and Physiological Valve

Drain urine from bladder to urethra
Valve is a fold of bladder mucosa by hydrostatic backpressure that prevents the backflow of urine

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Serosa

Tissue of a serous membrane

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Mucosa

Mucous membrane

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Bladder Location

Muscular sac on the floor of the pelvic cavity, inferior to the peritoneum and posterior to the pubic symphysis

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Bladder Mucosa Epithelium

Transitional epithelium

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Detrusor of Bladder

Muscularis that consists of three layers of smooth muscle

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Trigone of Bladder

Openings of two ureters and urethra from this smooth-surfaced triangular area

17

3 Urethral Regions for Males

1. Prostatic Urethra
2. Membranous Urethra
3. Spongy Urethra

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Cystitis

Bacterial contamination of the urethra is more common in females because of their shorter urethra and location of orifice

19

Blood Supply to the Nephron

Artery --> Capillary --> Artery --> Capillary --> Vein blood flow

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3 Basic Processes by the Nephron

1. Glomerular filtration
2. Tubular reabsorption
3. Tubular secretion

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Glomerular Filtration

Portion of blood plasma is filtered into the kidney
Capillary exchange

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Tubular Reabsorption

Water and useful substances reabsorbed into the blood

Tubule to Blood

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Tubular Secretion

Wastes are removed from the blood and secreted into the urine

Blood to Tubule

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Difference Between Blood and Glomerular Filtrate

Blood plasma contains large molecules and protein that are not present in glomerular filtrate

25

Layers of the Glomerular Filter

1. Fenestrated endothelium
2. Basement membrane
3. Filtration slits

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Fenestrated Endothelium

Highly permeable, but blood cells do not pass through

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Basement Membrane

Excludes molecules larger than 8nm

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Filtration Slits

Numerous extensions known as pedicels
Large anions cannot pass

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Podocytes

Cells that wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus

30

What substances are allowed/not allowed to pass through the glomerular membrane?

Pass: urea, glucose, insulin
Do not pass: albumin and hemoglobin