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Flashcards in Need to Work on for Test Deck (84):
1

Intravascular Clotting

Thrombosis and Embolism

2

Three Hemostatic Mechanisms

Platelet Plug
Vasoconstriction
Blood clotting

3

Second Stage of Clotting

Prothrombin + Prothrombin Activator = Thrombin

4

Fourth Stage of Clotting

Fibrin + Factor XIII = Fibrin Polymer

5

Thrombosis

Formation of a clot in an unbroken blood vessel

6

Rh Plasma

Does not contain anti-Rh unless exposed as a fetus

7

Platelets/Thrombocytes

Aid in clotting
130,000-400,000
2nd most abundant

8

Myocardium

Muscular portion
Contracts in a spiral motion

9

Neutrophils

Most abundant (60-70%)
Increase during bacterial infections

10

Fibrous Pericardium

CT membrane
Outer layer

11

Intrinsic

Factor VII activates Factor X

12

Eosinophils

2-4%
Increase during parasitic infections

13

Extrinsic

Factor III + Factor VII + Ca++ = Factor X

14

Lymphocytes

25-33%
B Cells and T Cells

15

Basophils

0.5%
Release heparin and histamine

16

Monocytes

3-8%
Antigen-presenting cells
Macrophages
Increase in viral infections and inflammation

17

Myeloid Leukocytes

Granulocytes

18

Three Features of Intercalated Discs

Interdigitating folds
Mechanical junctions
Electrical junctions

19

Premature Ventricular Contraction

QRS inverted
Common in college students

20

Action Potential of Ventricular Cardiocyte

Na channels open
Na depolarizes membrane
Na closes and voltage peaks at 30mV
Ca enters and causes a plateau
Ca closes and K repolarizes

21

Left Coronary Artery

Anterior Interventricular Artery
Circumflex Artery

22

Pacemaker Physiology

Slow leak Na enters
Ca opens at -40mV
K channels open at 0mV
Repeat once polarization is complete

23

Right Coronary Artery

Posterior Interventricular Artery
Marginal Artery

24

Myocardial vs. Skeletal

Skeletal: voluntary, excitation coupling
Myocardial: involuntary, SA node

25

Heart Block

Conduction is weak through AV bundle

26

Similarities Between Myocardial and Skeletal

Striated
Z-discs
Tropomyosin and troponin

27

Conduction System of the Heart

SA node fires
Excitation through atrial myocardium
AV node fires
Excitation travels down AV bundle
Purkinje fibers distribute

28

Electrical Activity

Atria depolarize (P)
Depolarization complete
Ventricles depolarize while atria repolarize (QR)
Ventricular depolarization is complete (S)
Ventricles repolarize (T)
Repolarization ocmplete

29

Structure of Cardiac Muscle

Cardiocytes
Intercalated discs
T-tubules
Fatty acids as fuel, glucose at rest

30

Intercalated Discs

Join all cardiac cells

31

Atrial Fibrillation

Atria quiver
Common in elderly

32

Ventricular Fibrillation

Heart cannot pump
Irregular waves of depolarization
Most serious

33

Parasympathetic

Decreases HR
Bradycardia

34

Ventricular Diastole (value)

30mL

35

Nerve Supply to Heart

Autonomous: Intrinsic Rate
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
Additional input from CNS

36

Conducting Arteries

Largest
Main highways

37

Cardiac Reserve

Difference between maximum output and output at rest

38

Distributing Arteries

Distribute blood to specific organs

39

Continuous Capillaries

Intercellular Clefts
Allow glucose, ions, and amino acids

40

Small Vessels

Resistance vessels
Neighborhoods

41

Fenestrated Capillaries

Holes to allow passage of H2O, retains proteins

42

Sinusoids

Many fenestrations
Allow clotting factors to enter circulation

43

Autonomic Regulation

Sympathetic originates in cervical--thoracic
Speeds up heart

44

Parasympathetic

Originates in vagus nerve in medulla oblongata
Slows the heart

45

Ventricular Diastole

Ventricular filling
Atrial filling
Atrial systole

46

Stroke Volume

Volume ejected per beat
(EDV-ESV)

47

End Systolic Volume (value)

50-60mL

48

Ejection Fraction

Blood at beginning of systole ejected during systole
SV/EDV

49

Atrial Systole (value)

40mL

50

Afterload

Pressure that must be overcome in order to open semilunar valves

51

Stroke Volume (value)

70mL

52

Veins

Lower BP
Reservoirs for blood
Accommodate increased volume

53

Venous Sinuses

No smooth muscle

54

Varicose Veins

Caused by leaky venous valves
Pooling of blood

55

Portal System

Blood flows to two consecutive capillary networks before returning to the heart

56

Venous Anastomosis

Most common blockage
Less serious
Alternative drainage of organs

57

Arterial Anastomosis

Collateral circulation (coronary)

58

Venous Constriction

Constriction of veins during muscular activity or hemorrhage
Increased venoconstriction = increased preload, stroke volume, and cardiac output

59

Capillary Exchange

Only occurs across capillary walls between blood and surrounding tissues

60

Three Routes of Capillary Exchange

Intercellular clefts
Fenestrations
Through cytoplasm

61

Mechanisms Involved in Capillary Exchange

Diffusion
Transcytosis
Filtration and reabsorption

62

Filtration

BP drives fluid out of capillary
High on arterial side, low on venous side

63

Reabsorption

Colloid osmotic pressure draws fluid into capillary
Same on both ends
Results from plasma proteins

64

Oncotic Pressure

Net colloid osmotic pressure

65

Dynamics of Capillary Exchange

Provides tissue with nutrients

66

Net Filtration

20L/day at arterial end

67

Net Reabsorption

17L/day at venous end

68

Starling's Law of Capillaries

Volume of fluid and solutes reabsorbed is almost as large as the volume filtered

69

Net Filtration Pressure

Determines whether fluids leave or enter capillaries

70

Net Outward Pressure

10mmHg at arterial end

71

Net Inward Pressure

9mmHg at venous end

72

Edema

Buildup of fluid
Not noticeable until 30% above normal

73

Result of Excess Filtration

Increased BP and increased permeability of capillaries allow plasma proteins to escape

74

Result of Inadequate Reabsorption

Decreased concentration of plasma proteins lowers blood colloid osmotic pressure
Inadequate synthesis or loss from liver disease, burns, malnutrition, or kidney disease

75

Causes of Edema

Poor venous return
Kidney failure
Histamine makes capillaries more permeable
Obstructed lymphatic drainage

76

Consequences of Edema

Circulatory shock
Tissue necrosis

77

Vasoconstriction

Sympathetic stimulation of arterial alpha receptors
Decreases diameter, increases BP

78

Vasodilation

Sympathetic stimulation of beta receptors
Increases diameter, promotes blood flow

79

Factors Affecting Circulation

Pressure differences that drive blood flow
Resistance to flow
Venous return

80

Blood Flow

Amount of blood flowing through a vessel at any given time

81

Perfusion

Rate of blood flow per given mass of tissue

82

Flow Equation

Delta P/R

83

Resistance Equation

1/r^4

84

Blood Flow Equation

r^4