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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (212):
1

How does lymphatic system prevent excess accumulation of tissue fluid (edema)?

Absorbs plasma proteins and fluid (2-4 L/day) from tissues and returns it to the bloodstream

2

How does lymphatic system counteract tissue infections?

Delivers WBCs to the site of infection

3

How does lymphatic system prevent the spread of malignant cells?

Traps damaged or harmful cells and also can destroy them in lymph glands

4

How many lymph nodes do we have?

Between 501-700 lymph nodes
About 450

5

Lymph Fluid
-What is it?
-Where does it originate?

Clear, colorless fluid
Similar to plasma but much less protein
Originates as interstitial fluid

6

Circulation Pathways of Lymph

1. Lymphatic capillaries
2. Collecting vessels
3. Lymphatic trunks
4. Collecting ducts
--Right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct

7

Right Lymphatic Duct

Drains lymph from upper right limb and the right side of the head and thorax

8

Thoracic Duct

Receives lymph from the rest of the body
Arises as enlarged sac called the cisterna chyli

9

Where does lymph end up?

Goes from lymph nodes to right or left subclavian vein, where it mixes back with the blood

10

Lymph Capillaries
--Where are they found?
--What is their function?

Found throughout the body except in avascular tissue
Deliver lymph to the tissues

11

How do lymph capillaries collect fluid?

Collect fluid from the tissues

12

How do lymph capillaries differ from blood capillaries?

Blood capillaries carry blood from small arterioles to small venules
Lymphatic capillaries carry lymphatic fluid from tissue to lymphatic venules

13

Lymph Nodes
--What is their function?
--Where are they located?
--What do they contain?

1. Produce lymphocytes
2. Scattered throughout the body, but concentrated near mammary glands, axillae, and groin
3. B cells and plasma cells

14

Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

Diffuse system of small concentration of lymphoid tissue found in the GI tract, thyroid, breast, lung, salivary glands, eye, and skin

15

Tonsils and MALT Function

Aggregations of lymphocytes in the connective tissues of mucous membranes and various organs

16

Spleen

NOT a lymphatic organ
Filters blood and removes dead RBCs

17

Location of the Spleen

Between the stomach, diaphragm, and kidney
Upper left quadrant
Epigastric region

18

Cisterna Chyli

Sac formed from two lumbar trunks and intestinal trunk that collects a large amount of chyle

19

Thoracic Duct

On the left
Larger and stronger than right lymphatic duct

20

Right Lymphatic Duct

Receives drainage from right arm and right side of the thorax and head and empties into the right subclavian vein

21

Terminal End of the Thoracic Duct

Sometimes called the left lymphatic duct

22

Final Destination of Lymph Fluid

Circulatory system

23

Why is the lymphatic system a 1-way system?

Lymphatic system is a return system only; removes fluid from the body and carries it to lymphatic ducts and trunks and puts it back into circulation

24

Lymphedema

Condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system

25

Lymphangitis

Inflammation of the walls of lymphatic vessels

26

Lymphadenitis

Inflammation of the lymph nodes

27

Specific Immune Defenses

Immunity is directed against a particular pathogen
Body reacts when re-exposed to the same pathogen

28

Nonspecific Immune Defense

Initial immune reaction against foreign antigens via nonspecific antibodies and immune cells

29

Acquired Immunity

Immunity that is not inherited

30

Innate Immunity

Nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigen's appearance in the body

31

Active Immunity

The body makes its own antibodies or T cells against a pathogen

32

Passive Immunity

Body acquires antibodies from another person or an animal that has developed immunity to the pathogen

33

Injection for Passive Immunity

Immune serum from another person or from animals that have antibodies against a certain pathogen

34

Injection for Active Immunity

Vaccine that contains dead or weakened pathogens to stimulate an immune response

35

First Line of Defense

Skin
Mucus
Tears
Cilia
Stomach Acid
Urine Flow
"Friendly" Bacteria

36

Second Line of Defense

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Macrophages
Interferons
Complement Proteinsf

37

Neutrophils

Phagocytize bacteria
Create a killing zone by degranulating and initiating a respiratory burst

38

Eosinophils

Phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes, allergens, and chemicals
Antiparasitic effects

39

Basophils

Secrete chemicals to attract other leukocytes
Histamine, leukotrienes, heparine
Also produced by mast cells

40

Macrophages

Large grouping of monocytes
Form outside of the circulatory system
Possess MHC
Secrete cytokines

41

Interferons

Produced by virally infected cells (lymphocytes and macrophages)
Diffuse to neighboring cells to induce synthesis of antiviral proteins

42

Complement Proteins

Inactive proteins in blood plasma
When activated enhance immune, allergic, and inflammatory reactions

43

Natural Active Immunity

Production of one's own antibodies or T cells as a result of natural exposure to an antigen

44

Artificial Active Immunity

Production of one's own antibodies or T cells as a result of vaccination

45

Antigen

Molecule or bit of foreign material

46

Which cells have MHC-I?

Found in the cell membrane of all cells except red blood cells

47

Which cells have MHC-II?

Found only in antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, B cells, thymus cells)

48

Normal function of MHC-I?

Contains bits of virus marking cell so T cells recognize

49

Normal function of MHC-II?

If antigen-presenting cells ingest foreign proteins, they will display as part of MHC-II

50

Antigen-Presenting Cell

Encounters an antigen and migrates to the nearest lymph node and displays it to the T cells

51

Costimulation

Signaling process that helps to ensure that the immune system does not launch an attack in the absence of an enemy

52

T-Cell Receptors

Found on the surface of T cells and is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to MHC

53

Helper T Cells

Necessary for most immune responses
Coordinate humoral and cellular immunity

54

What happens when a Helper T cell recognizes an Ag-MHC complex?

Secrete interleukins that exert three effects:
1. Attract neutrophils and NK cells
2. Attract macrophages and stimulate phagocytic activity
3. Stimulate T and B cell mitosis and maturation

55

Interleukins

Any class of glycoproteins produced by leukocytes for regulating immune responses

56

Activation of Cytotoxic T Cells

Docks on diseased cell with MHC-I protein and delivers a lethal hit of chemicals that will destroy it

57

Memory Clones

Clones of the cell the helper T cell recognized to make sure it is introduced into the system

58

Antibody-Mediated Immunity is also called...

Humoral Immunity

59

Antibody-Mediated Immunity

1. Helper T Cells
2. Costimulation
3. B-Cell receptors
4. Plasma cells
5. Memory B-cells
6. Antibodies

60

Plasma Cells

Develop from B cells that have been activated by helper T cells
Synthesize and secrete antibodies

61

Memory B-Cells

Mount a very quick secondary/anamnestic response if exposed to the same antigen

62

Antibodies

Gamma globulin produced by plasma cells in response to an antigen
Counteract the antigen by means of complement fixation, neutralization of toxins, agglutination, or precipitation

63

How do T-Cells fight off a pathogen?

Produce perforin, granzymes, interferon, tumor necrosis factor, and other cytokines

64

How do B-Cells kill off a pathogen?

B-Cells make antigens clump together

65

Why do we give booster vaccinations?

Immune response "memory" weakens over time

66

Which cells are involved in cellular immunity?

Lymphocytes

67

Which cells are involved in humoral immunity?

Antibodies

68

Cellular Immunity

Lymphocytes directly attack and destroy foreign cells

69

Humoral Immunity

Antibodies tag pathogens for destruction

70

Five Classes of Antibodies

IgA
IgD
IgE
IgG
IgM

71

IgA

Able to cross the placenta
Found in tears, saliva, mucus
Prevents pathogens from adhering to epithelia and penetrating underlying tissues

72

IgE

Involved in allergies

73

IgM

Produced earlier in an infection

74

What cells does HIV destroy?

Helper T cells

75

Passive Immunity

Short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal
Found in vaccines or serum

76

Advantages of Passive Immunity

Benefits immunosuppressed patients
Protection is immediate

77

Disadvantages of Passive Immunity

No immunological memory is generated
Short-term protection

78

Which immunity provides an anamnestic response?

Active immunity

79

Which immunity has a lag time before an immune response is generated?

Active immunity

80

Which immunity is immediately effective?

Passive immunity

81

Which immunity provides only short-term, temporary protection?

Passive immunity

82

What kind of molecule are complement proteins?

Globulins

83

Where are complement proteins found?

Liver

84

General Action of Complement Proteins

Circulate in the blood in inactive form and are activated with the presence of pathogens

85

How do complement proteins kill cells?

1. Inflammation
2. Immune clearance
3. Phagocytosis
4. Cytolysis

86

Thymus Location

Located between the sternum and the aortic arch in the superior mediastinum

87

Function of Thymus

Produces thymopoietin, interleukins, and interferon to stimulate production of white blood cells

88

Thymus with age?

Degenerates

89

Antibody/Humoral Immunity

1. Antigens bind to B cells
2. Interleukins/helper T cells costimulate B cells
3. B cells proliferate and produce plasma cells that contain antibodies against the antigen
4. B cells produce memory cells

90

Cell-Mediated Immunity

1. Antigen-presenting cells display foreign antigens that bind to T cells
2. Interleukins costimulate activation of T cells
3. If MHC-I, cells proliferate and produce cytotoxic T cells that destroy the cell displaying the antigen
4. If MHC-II, cells produce helper T cells that release interleukins that stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to bind to the antigens and nonspecific agents (NK and macrophages) to destroy the antigens

91

Which immunity is effective against intracellular pathogens?

Cell-mediated

92

Which immunity is effective against extracellular pathogens?

Humoral

93

Which immunity is effective against transplanted cells?

Cell-mediated

94

Which immunity is effective against tumor cells?

Cell-mediated

95

Hypersensitivity

A set of undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity

96

Type 1 (Acute) Hypersensitivity

Most common allergies

97

Type 2 (Antibody-Dependent Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity

Occurs when IgG or IgM attacks antigens bound to cell surface

98

Type 3 (Immune Complex) Hypersensitivity

Occurs when IgG or IgM forms antigen-antibody complexes that precipitate beneath the endothelium of the blood vessels or in other tissues

99

Type 4 (Delayed) Hypersensitivity

Cell-mediated reaction in which the signs appear about 12 to 72 hours after exposure

100

Where are T Cells produced and what activates them?

Produced in the bone marrow
Activated by the thymus

101

Upper Respiratory System

Respiratory organs in the head and neck
1. Nose
2. Pharynx
3. Larynx
4. Trachea

102

Lower Respiratory System

Respiratory organs of the thorax
1. Lungs
2. Bronchial tree

103

Pulmonary Respiration/Ventilation

Ventilation of the lungs/breathing

104

Cellular Respiration

The use of oxygen in cellular metabolism

105

Bones Forming the Nose

Premaxilla bone
Palatine bone
Vomer bone
Nasal bone

106

Location of Nasal Cavities

Internal chamber of the nose divided into right and left halves (Nasal Fossae)

107

Nasal Septum

Vertical plate dividing the nasal fossae
Formed by vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone

108

Conchae/Turbinates
--Functions

Three folds of tissue that project from the lateral walls toward the septum
Support the olfactory mucous membranes and increase the surface area

109

Meatuses

Nasal passages of the nasal cavity

110

Mucosa

Facilitates the detection of and response to odor molecules

111

How does your nose prevent bacteria from entering your lungs?

Mucus membranes trap bacteria
Nasal hairs remove suspended microorganisms from the air

112

Larynx Location

Between pharynx and trachea

113

Thyroid Cartilage

Uppermost cartilage within the larynx

114

Glottis

Opening between the vocal cords

115

Cricoid Cartilage

Located near the middle and center of the neck, slightly below the thyroid cartilage

116

Trachea and Esophagus

Trachea is posterior, esophagus is anterior

117

When you swallow, what prevents food from moving from the oropharynx to the nasopharynx?

Valve created by the soft palate

118

What is contained by the mediastinum?

Heart, aorta, thymus, chest portion of trachea, esophagus, lymph nodes

119

Parietal Pleura

Outer membrane that attaches to and lines the inner surface of the thoracic cavity

120

Visceral Pleura

Covers the surface of each lung

121

Pleural Fluid

Between parietal and visceral pleura

122

Epithelium of Trachea

Pseudostratified squamous epithelium

123

Function of Cartilage Rings

Support the trachea while allowing it to move and flex during breathing

124

Hilus of Lung

Inner side of each lung

125

Apex of Lung

Rounded upper part of the human lung

126

Base of Lung

Broad, concave, and rests upon the surface of the diaphragm

127

Right Lobes

3

128

Left Lobes

2

129

What kind of muscle is found in bronchiolar wall?

Smooth muscle

130

Alveolar-Capillary Membrane (Respiratory Membrane) Function

Exists to prevent air bubbles from forming in the blood and from blood entering the alveoli

131

Thickness of Alveolar-Capillary Membrane

Varies from 0.4 to 2 micrometers

132

Layers of Alveolar-Capillary Membrane that CO2 and O2 Molecules Need to Cross

1. Epithelial alveolar
2. Shared basement membrane
3. Endothelial alveolar

133

Function of Elastic Fibers

Allow alveoli to stretch as they are filled with air during inhalation

134

Function of Macrophages in Alveoli

Clear inhaled particles from the alveolar regions of the lung

135

Purpose of Surfactant

Reduces the surface tension of fluid in the lungs and helps make alveoli in the lungs more stable
Secreted by alveoli

136

Normal differences in pressure between pleural cavity and atmosphere

Pleural cavity pressure is less than atmospheric pressure

137

Negative Pressure Breathing

The rib cage expands and the diaphragm contracts, expanding the chest cavity, causing pressure in the chest cavity to decrease and the lungs to expand and fill the space

138

What muscle produces an intra-pleural pressure change?

Diaphragm
1. Diaphragm moves downward
2. Increases vertical dimension of thoracic cavity
3. Lowers air pressure in lungs
4. Air moves into the lungs

139

Tidal Volume

TV
Lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation

140

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

IRV
Maximal amount of air that can be drawn into the lungs by determined effort after normal inspiration

141

Expiratory Reserve Volume

ERV
The additional amount of air that can be expired from the lungs by determined effort after normal expiration

142

Reserve Volume

RV
The volume of air still remaining in the lungs after the most forcible expiration possible

143

Vital Capacity

VC
The greatest volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after taking the deepest possible breath

144

Total Lung Capacity

The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of maximal expiration

145

How are pulmonary volumes measured?

Spirometry

146

Dalton's Law

In a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of partial pressures of the individual gases

147

Percentage of Nitrogen in the Air

78%

148

Percentage of Oxygen in the Air

21%

149

Percentage of Carbon Dioxide in the Air

0.04%

150

Partial Pressure

The pressure that would be exerted by one of the gases in a mixture if it occupied the same value on its own

151

Partial Pressure of Oxygen

160mmHg
Reflects the amount of oxygen gas dissolved in the blood
Measures the effectiveness of the lungs in pulling oxygen into the bloodstream from the atmosphere

152

Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide

35-45mmHg

153

Why can we breathe 79% nitrogen?

Nitrogen is inert and doesn't react with anything; does not get absorbed by the body

154

Concentration Gradients of CO2 and O2 Across the Respiratory Membrane of the Alveolus

The change in partial pressure from the alveoli (high concentration) to the capillaries (low concentration) drives the oxygen into the tissue and the carbon dioxide in the blood (high concentration) from the tissues (low concentration) where it is returned to the lungs and exhaled

155

Concentration Gradients of CO2 and O2 Across Capillary Membranes Into and Out of Interstitial Fluid and Cytoplasm

O2 will diffuse from high O2 blood in capillaries to low O2 body cells
CO2 goes from high CO2 to low CO2 capillaries to be carried out of the body

156

Respiratory Membrane Thickness

0.5-1 micrometer thick

157

Respiratory Membrane Surface Area

As large as a tennis court

158

Arterial PO2

>79torr

159

Arterial PCO2

23-39 mmol/L

160

Venous PO2

30-40torr

161

Venous PCO2

23-30 mmol/L

162

How is CO2 carried?

1. Dissolved in solution
2. Buffered with water as carbonic acid
3. Bound to proteins such as hemoglobin

163

Systemic Gas Exchange: O2 Loading or Unloading?

Oxygen Loading

164

Systemic Gas Exchange: CO2 Loading or Unloading?

Carbon Dioxide Unloading

165

How does blood transport oxygen?

Hemoglobin

166

What is normal hemoglobin saturation?

97%

167

How does pH affect loading/unloading?

Decreased pH: caused by increased CO2 and enhances unloading of O2
Increased pH: caused by decreased CO2 and enhances loading of O2

168

How does temperature affect loading/unloading?

Increased Temperature: enhances unloading of O2 in the tissues and decreases loading of O2 in the lungs
Decreased Temperature: enhances loading of O2 in the lungs

169

CO2 source of production in the body?

Mitochondria via aerobic respiration
Glycolysis

170

Bicarbonate Buffer System

Acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid, bicarbonate ion, and carbon dioxide to maintain pH

171

Bicarbonate Buffer System Equation

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 HCO3 + H+

172

What does carbonic anhydrase do?

Aids in conversion of CO2 to carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions

173

Normal Body pH

7.4

174

How do higher plasma levels decrease body pH?

Cellular buffering elevates plasma bicarbonate, which causes body to be acidic

175

Cause of Alkalosis

Loss of acid from the blood or low level of CO2 in the blood

176

Compensation Mechanism of Alkalosis

Breathing into a paper bag

177

Hypercapnia

Excessive CO2 in the bloodstream caused by inadequate respiration

178

Hypocapnia

State of reduced CO2 in the blood caused by rapid deep breathing or hyperventilation

179

CNS Centers of Respiration

Medulla oblongata
Pons
Apneustic center
Pneumotaxic center

180

Central Chemoreceptors

Detect changes in pH of spinal fluid

181

Peripheral Chemoreceptors

Include aortic body
Detect changes in blood O2 and CO2

182

Hypoxia Etiologies

1. Asthma
2. COPD
3. Emphysema
4. Pneumonia
5. Sleep apnea
6. Anemia

183

Carbaminohemoglobin

Compound of hemoglobin and carbon dioxide and is one of the forms in which carbon dioxide exists in the blood

184

Oxyhemoglobin

Bright red substance formed by the combination of hemoglobin with oxygen

185

Pneumothorax

Collapsed lung

186

Innate Pulmonary Defense Mechanisms

Nose: nasal mucosa
Trachea: cilia
Alveoli: macrophages

187

Alveolar Gas Exchange (Lungs)

CO2 + H20

188

Systemic Gas Exchange (Tissues)

CO2 + H2O ----> H2CO3 ----> HCO3 + H+

189

Boyle's Law

The pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume (assuming constant pressure)

190

Charles' Law

The volume of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (assuming constant pressure)

191

Henry's Law

At the air-water interface, the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in the air (assuming constant temperature)

192

Functions of the Kidney

Eliminates nitrogenous waste
Regulates blood ions
Regulates blood pH, osmolarity, glucose, blood volume
Regulates blood pressure
Releases EPO and calcitrol
Excretes wastes and foreign substances

193

Glomerulus

Site of filtration of blood

194

Glomerular Capsule/Bowman's Capsule

Performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine

195

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

Lies between Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle and reabsorbs sugar, sodium, and chloride ions

196

Descending Loop of Henle

Constitutes the first part of the loop of Henle

197

Ascending Loop of Henle

Second part of the loop of Henle

198

Distal Convoluted Tubule

Between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system

199

Collecting Duct

Participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through excretion and reabsorption and is regulated by aldosterone

200

Blood Supply to the Nephron

Artery--Capillary--Artery--Capillary--Vein Blood Flow

201

Three Basic Processes Performed by the Nephron

1. Glomerular filtration
2. Tubular secretion
3. Tubular reabsorption

202

Glomerular Filtration

Process by which the kidneys filter the blood, removing excess waste and fluids

203

Tubular Secretion

The transfer of materials from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubular lumen

204

Tubular Reabsorption

The process by which solutes and water are removed from the tubular fluid and transported into the blood

205

Difference Between Glomerular Filtrate and Blood

GF is solute-rich fluid without blood cells or plasma proteins
Blood has plasma and blood cells

206

Layers of the Glomerular Filer

1. Fenestrated endothelium
2. Basement Membrane
3. Filtration Slits (pedicels)

207

Podocytes

Cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus

208

GFR

Estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute
105-125mL/min
180 L/day

209

Where is the majority of GF reabsorbed?

Proximal convoluted tubule

210

Renal Threshold

Concentration of a substance dissolved in the blood above which the kidneys begin to remove it into urine

211

What substances are secreted into GF?

Potassium
Hydrogen
Ammonium
Creatinine
Urea

212

Glucosuria

Excess glucose in the urine