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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (212)
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1

How does lymphatic system prevent excess accumulation of tissue fluid (edema)?

Absorbs plasma proteins and fluid (2-4 L/day) from tissues and returns it to the bloodstream

2

How does lymphatic system counteract tissue infections?

Delivers WBCs to the site of infection

3

How does lymphatic system prevent the spread of malignant cells?

Traps damaged or harmful cells and also can destroy them in lymph glands

4

How many lymph nodes do we have?

Between 501-700 lymph nodes
About 450

5

Lymph Fluid
-What is it?
-Where does it originate?

Clear, colorless fluid
Similar to plasma but much less protein
Originates as interstitial fluid

6

Circulation Pathways of Lymph

1. Lymphatic capillaries
2. Collecting vessels
3. Lymphatic trunks
4. Collecting ducts
--Right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct

7

Right Lymphatic Duct

Drains lymph from upper right limb and the right side of the head and thorax

8

Thoracic Duct

Receives lymph from the rest of the body
Arises as enlarged sac called the cisterna chyli

9

Where does lymph end up?

Goes from lymph nodes to right or left subclavian vein, where it mixes back with the blood

10

Lymph Capillaries
--Where are they found?
--What is their function?

Found throughout the body except in avascular tissue
Deliver lymph to the tissues

11

How do lymph capillaries collect fluid?

Collect fluid from the tissues

12

How do lymph capillaries differ from blood capillaries?

Blood capillaries carry blood from small arterioles to small venules
Lymphatic capillaries carry lymphatic fluid from tissue to lymphatic venules

13

Lymph Nodes
--What is their function?
--Where are they located?
--What do they contain?

1. Produce lymphocytes
2. Scattered throughout the body, but concentrated near mammary glands, axillae, and groin
3. B cells and plasma cells

14

Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

Diffuse system of small concentration of lymphoid tissue found in the GI tract, thyroid, breast, lung, salivary glands, eye, and skin

15

Tonsils and MALT Function

Aggregations of lymphocytes in the connective tissues of mucous membranes and various organs

16

Spleen

NOT a lymphatic organ
Filters blood and removes dead RBCs

17

Location of the Spleen

Between the stomach, diaphragm, and kidney
Upper left quadrant
Epigastric region

18

Cisterna Chyli

Sac formed from two lumbar trunks and intestinal trunk that collects a large amount of chyle

19

Thoracic Duct

On the left
Larger and stronger than right lymphatic duct

20

Right Lymphatic Duct

Receives drainage from right arm and right side of the thorax and head and empties into the right subclavian vein

21

Terminal End of the Thoracic Duct

Sometimes called the left lymphatic duct

22

Final Destination of Lymph Fluid

Circulatory system

23

Why is the lymphatic system a 1-way system?

Lymphatic system is a return system only; removes fluid from the body and carries it to lymphatic ducts and trunks and puts it back into circulation

24

Lymphedema

Condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system

25

Lymphangitis

Inflammation of the walls of lymphatic vessels

26

Lymphadenitis

Inflammation of the lymph nodes

27

Specific Immune Defenses

Immunity is directed against a particular pathogen
Body reacts when re-exposed to the same pathogen

28

Nonspecific Immune Defense

Initial immune reaction against foreign antigens via nonspecific antibodies and immune cells

29

Acquired Immunity

Immunity that is not inherited

30

Innate Immunity

Nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigen's appearance in the body