Lymphatic and Immune System Quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lymphatic and Immune System Quiz Deck (43):
1

Functions of Lymphatic System

Immunity
Lipid absorption
Fluid recovery

2

Organs Involved in Lymphatic System

Red bone marrow
Thymus
Tonsils
Spleen
Lymph nodes

3

Lymph

Clear, colorless fluid, similar to plasma but much less protein

4

Lymphatic Capillaries

Closed at one end
Tethered to surrounding tissue by protein filaments
Endothelial cells loosely overlapped

5

Lymphatic Vessels

Larger ones composed on tunica interna, tunica media, and tunica externa

6

Route of Lymph Flow

Lymphatic Capillaries
Collecting Vessels
Lymphatic Trunks
Collecting Ducts (Right Lymphatic and Thoracic)

7

Mechanisms of Lymph Flow

Low pressure and low speed
Aided by pumps
Moved along by rhythmic contractions of lymphatic vessels

8

Lymphatic Cells (Lymphocytes)

Natural Killer Cells
T Lymphocytes
B Lymphocytes
Antigen Presenting Cells

9

Lymphatic Tissue

Aggregations of lymphocytes in mucus membranes and CT of many organs

10

Lymph Nodes

Bean-shaped organs located around lymphatic vessels
Cortex and medulla
Flow is in one direction
Filter lymph

11

Palatine Tonsils

Pair at the posterior margin of the oral cavity

12

Lingual Tonsils

Pair at the root of the tongue

13

Pharyngeal Tonsil

Single tonsil on the wall of the pharynx (adenoid)

14

Thymus Gland

Two lobed organ in the mediastinum

15

Spleen

Red pulp filled with erythrocytes
While pulp filled with lymphocytes and macrophages
Blood reservoir and filters blood

16

2nd Line of Defense

Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Macrophages

17

Neutrophils

Phagocytize bacteria
Create a killing zone
Kills itself

18

Eosinophils

Found in mucus membranes
Phagocytizes antigen-antibody complexes, allergens, and chemicals

19

Basophils

Secrete chemicals to attract leukocytes
Secrete histamine, leukotrienes, heparine

20

Macrophages

Displays foreign antigens
Secretes cytokines
Induces fever
Form outside of the circulatory system

21

Interferons

Produced by virally infected cells
Diffuse to neighboring cells to induce synthesis of antiviral proteins

22

Complement Proteins

Inactive proteins in blood plasma
When activated enhance immune, allergic, and inflammatory reactions

23

Antiviral Effect

Generalized protection
Activate natural killer cells and macrophages
Destroy infected host cells

24

Anticancer

Stimulate destruction of cancer cells

25

Pathways of Complement Activation

Classical pathway
Alternate pathway
Leptin pathway

26

Mechanisms of Action

Enhanced inflammation
Opsonization
Cytolysis
Phagocytosis

27

Classical Pathway

Begins with activation of C1
Specific response

28

Alternate Pathway

Begins with activation of C3

29

Leptin Pathway

Binds carbohydrates on the pathogen surface

30

C3A

Leads to inflammation

31

C3B

Leads to immune clearance
Phagocytosis
Cytolysis

32

Membrane Attack Complex

Complement proteins C5B to C9 form ring in plasma membrane of enemy cell causing cytolysis

33

Natural Killer Cells and Phagocytes

NK cells kill a variety of microbes and tumor cells
Phagocytes are neutrophils and macrophages

34

Phagocytosis

Chemotaxis
Adherence
Ingestion
Digestion and Killing

35

Chemotaxis

Attraction to chemicals from damaged tissues, complement proteins, or microbial products

36

Adherence

Attachment to plasma membrane of phagocyte

37

Ingestion

Engulf by pseudopods to form phagosome

38

Digestion and Killing

Merge with lysosome containing digestive enzymes and form lethal oxidants
Exocytosis residual body

39

Inflammation

Defensive response to tissue injury
Limits speed of pathogens, then destroys them
Removes debris and initiates tissue repair

40

Cardinal Signs of Inflammation

Redness (caused by increased blood flow)
Swelling (caused by increased capillary permeability and filtration)
Heat (caused by increased blood flow)
Pain (caused by inflammatory chemicals: bradykinin and prostaglandins)

41

Fever

Promotes interferon activity
Accelerates metabolic rate and tissue repair
Inhibits pathogen reproduction

42

Course of a Fever

1. Infection and pyrogen secretion
2. Hypothalamic thermostat is reset to higher set point
3. Onset (body temperature rises)
4. Stadium (body temperature oscillates around new set point)
5. Infection ends, set point returns to normal
6. Defervescence (body temperature returns to normal)

43

Mobilization of Defenses

Bradykinin, histamine, and leukotrienes are secreted by damaged cells, basophils, and mast cells